What is WAXES?

There are many waxes of mineral, animal, and vegetable origin, of which the bestknown variety is Beeswax, produced by bees from the sugar of their iood. It is somewhat yellow, tough and solid, and can be bleached by chlorine It is of complex composition, and contains several different substances including myricm one of the normal f uty acids. It melts at 63 degrees C.; its sp. gr. is 096 to 097; t *s soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform, and is used in making candles and various polishes. Bayherry Wax, from the bark of the Myrica, is green in colour, and con sists of palmiiin, palmitic acid, myristin, and lauric acid. It is used in candlemaking. CandeliUa Wax is found as an excretion on Euphorbia ceriis obtained from the leaves of the Evythnxylun coca plant cultivated in Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, and which are used for chewing like tobacco. After purification, it is a white amorphous substance which melts at 70 degrees C. and is readily soluble in hot alcohol, CottonSeed Wax Contained in raw cotton to the extent of about 05 per cent. Oow Tree Wax is obtained by evaporating the milk of the cowtree. It resembles beeswax in some general characters and admits of saponification. Godan” Was tGetah Wax is made from the latex of a wild figtree. Japan or “Vegetable Wax. or tree wax, is partly obtained in the East Indies from berries of the Rims snccedanea and several species of sumachtree by boiling the fruit in water. It is not a real wax but a glyceride, and contains palmitin with free palmitic acid. It has a yellow colour, is soluble in benzol and naphtha, melts at 53 degrees C., and is of sp. gr. 0970 to C980. The Island of Kyushu accounts for about onehalf of the total production obtained from the fruit kernels of a tree peculiar to Japan. It is used in making wax matches, candles, furniture polish, and leatherdressing. Montan Wax is extracted from pyropissitt obtained from the lignites of Saxony and Thuringia. When refined it is white, and is used as a substitute for carnauba wax. It is soluble in benzol, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. Ocuba Wax is obtained from the fruit of Mynstica ocuba officinalis, which grows in marshy ground on the Amazon shores, and is used in Brazil for making candles. Paraffin Wax is made from ozokerite by treatment with sulphuric acid and subsequent bleaching, and is also a solid constituent of the oily distillates from natural bituminous substances including coal, shale, lignite, peat, wood, and natural petroleum, from which it is obtained by refrigeration. It is a white translucent mixture of hydrocarbons of sp. gr. o88o to 0915, and melts between 450 and 65 degrees C. It is soluble in turpentine, benzol, carbon disulphide, and chloroform, and comes into the market in many grades, some hard and some soft, all known as “paraffin scale” before purification, and s extensively used in the manufacture of candles, tlonr polishes, waxed paper, lubricants, waterproofing of wood and corks, etc. By oxidation at 150 degrees C. in a stream of oxygen and in presence of manganese compounds it is by catalytic action largely resolved into fatty acids, the resulting mass containing 35 per cent, insoluble in water, and about 25 per cent, of lower fatly acids. Palm Wax comes from the. Ceroxylon andicola, a palm indigenous in the tropical parts of America, on the stem of which it forms a covering. In Ecuador, trees are found in great numbers, each of which furnishes about 50 lbs. of wax. After washing with hot water, in which it does not melt, it is mixed with a little tallow and made into balls for exportation. It is yellow, and really consists of a wax and resin which are separated by hot alcohol, the resin remaining in solution and the wax separating out as a Jelly on cooling. When purified in this way it resembles beeswax in appearance and composition. Pisang Wax. a powdery mass obtained from the leaves of the Cera musa, indigenous in Java. Raphia Wax is found as a whitish layer on the under sides of the leaves of a Madagascar palm. The dried leaves yield about 10 per cent. Its sp. gr. is 0834, meltingpoint 825 degrees C., saponification value 51, and iodine value from 77 to 107.

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Definition of  WAXES