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URANITE

Uranium minerals, one of which is a phosphate of uranium and copper, and the other a phosphate of uranium and calcium.

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URINE

Its Use in the Garden. Gardeners do not realise as they ought to the immense value of human urine in the garden. In its fresh state the results gained from its use are often very disappointing, but after it has fermented for a few days, the food it contains becomes altered and much more valuable for plants. In the limited cases where urine 1 102 is used, it is the truth to say it is used the wrong way. Instead of the gardener making arrangements with the servants to save the urine and keep it separately for him, he goes down to the cesspool and pumps the liquid up to the garden again. Cesspool liquid (especially where the family is large and there are constant baths), is usually very poor, but in some cases it is wholly undesirable on account of the soapy matter it contains. Soap suds and human urine are not a good mixture, and frequently turn the soil sour. The gardener should arrange that all urine made in childrens nurseries and in the bedrooms be saved for him, and emptied into one of three barrels daily during the summer months. Thus a constant supply of fermented urine will be available, and the problem of not being able to get drainings from cowsheds and pig-stys for making into liquid manure will be solved. The barrels of urine should be out of sight. This can be managed by putting them behind a group of tall shrubs. But they must, nevertheless, be easy of access and in a convenient spot, since everything which can be done should be done to avoid unnecessary extra labour. When required for use, a can should be dipped into one of the barrels and this should be filled about one-fifth of its capacity with the fermented urine. The can is then filled up with water. This is, generally speaking, a safe liquid manure for strong-growing crops, but as the strength of human urine is apt to vary somewhat according to diet, health condition of its producer, and period of its passage, it is well to test the diluted liquid first by pouring some over the foliage of largeleaved weeds. If it should burn them, it is too strong, and should again be diluted. This liquid is splendid for such gross feeding crops as leeks and onions, also celery, all of which will stand a lot of feeding. This liquid may also be used, as mentioned just now, as a general liquid manure. If the barrels should smell badly, it will be necessary to mix a small quantity of sulphuric acid with their contents, and this should stop the trouble. Urine can be used in another way besides the one given above. Mixed with twice its own volume of water, it is a grand liquid for pouring over heaps of vegetable refuse which the gardener desires to enrich and hasten in decomposition. This subject is dealt with more fully in the article on Vegetable Matter, which see. E.

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URTICA

(Nat. Ord. Urticacese). The several species in this genus of hardy herbaceous and spreading perennial plants are quite unworthy of cultivation. U. dioica is the well-known Stinging Nettle, a most troublesome weed, the young shoots of which may be eaten as spinach or made into nettle-beer. See article on Weeds.

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UVULARIA

(Bellwort. Nat. Ord. Liliacese).This is a small and unimportant genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, six out of its nine usually grown species now being included in other genera. Of the remaining three, U. grandiflora bears purplish flowers, and grows I ft. high ; while U. perfoliata and U. sessilifolia both bear yellow flowers and only grow half that height. All three species bloom in May and respond to ordinary border or rock border culture in light loam. They are best propagated by division of the roots in mid-March, which also is a good time to plant.

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UMBILICUS

Now included in the genus Cotyledon.

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UNICORN PLANT

This, belonging to the genus Martynia, bears edible pods used in pickling. It is a climbing or trailing plant with yellow flowers, requiring greenhouse treatment, and is not greatly recommended for general culture.

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