or spirits of turpentine is a mixture of the hydrocarbons, known as terpenes, produced by nature in pinetrees, but spruce turpenl me is said to consist largely of cymene. The oil is collected by making cuts or slits in the bark of the trees, through which there exudes gum thus, or “crude turpentine,” and, when this is distilled with steam, the oil or spirit of turpentine passes over as vapour and is afterwards condensed, leaving rosin behind. There are many kinds of turpentine, meaning the crude products as they exude from the trees, and as many corresponding oils or spirits of turpentine. American turpentine is obtained chiefly from Pinus australis and Pinus tad a; French turpentine from Pinus maritima and Pinus pinaster Russian turpentine from Pinus sylvestris and Pinus ledcbourii; German turpentine from the Scotch fir Pinus sylvestris and Abiespectinata, etc.; Strasburg turpentine from the silver fir, A hies pectinata; Venice tur pentine from the larch, Larix Europcta; Indian turpentine from Pinus longifolia Roxb.; Burma turpentine from Pinus Khassyia and Chio turpentine from Pistacia terehinthus and Pinus vera. “Pinecone oil” is obtained by distilling the cones of Abies pectinata with water, and “pine leaf oil” similarly from the leaves of Pinus sylvestris or Pinus ahits. There are also varieties of “pineneedle oils” prepared from the needles of the various species of pines. The crude turpentine which concretes upon the bark of the trees tapped for turpentine in.France is variously called galipot and harras, and is, for the most part, rosin. The turpentines find uses in the crude forms in which they exude from the trees which produce them, but for the most part the oil or spirit is first of all distilled from the crude materials and are then utilized as solvents and as volatile vehicles in connection with many manufactured articles, including paints, varnishes, disinfectants, etc., also in pharmacy and medicine. Turpentine oils, irrespective of source, are colourless mobile fluids each of more or less characteristic odour insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, and carbon disulphide, and miscible with many other organic fluids. They vary in specific gravity from 0865 to 0875, boilingpoints from 160 degrees to 162 degrees C., and optical rotatory power, and they differ not only in respect of their origin, but to some extent even among themselves so tar as they come from a common source. Turpentine absorbs oxygen when exposed to the air, oxygen, or ozone, and produces a body of the character of a peroxide, which in presence of water gives rise to the formation of hydrogen dioxide, and this property is utilized in the manufacture of “Sanitas fluid,” the wellknown disinfectant. This absorptive capacity for oxygen is more pronounced in the Indian, Russian, and other sylvestre classes of turpentine.
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