and its CompoundsAtomic weight, 1×8; sp. gr., 72; meltingpoint, 2320 C. Tin is found in nature for the most part in the form of oxide in the mineral known as tinstone in Cornwall, the production in 1890 amounting to 15,000 tons, but only to 6,378 tons in 1918; it also occurs m Malacca, Bolivia, Borneo, and Mexico. The metal is prepared from it, after washing, by a process of calcination with anthracite coal, whereby the oxygen constituent is removed in the form of carbon monoxide and the metal remains behind in the form known as block tin Tin is a bright white metal wbich can be obtained in crystalline form, and does not tarnish in the air. It is fairly soft, ductile, and malleable. In cold dilute nitric acid:t dissolves, stanuous nitrate 2 being formed, while the corresponding chloride is formed by the action of strong hydrochloric acid upon the metal. It is largely used in the process of tinning iron and other metals, ordinary tinplate consisting, for example, of sheet iron coated with tin on the surface by dipping the cleaned iron plates into the molten tin. It has valuable applications by reason of the fact that it is not acted upon by many chemicals which readily attack iron and some other metals. It enters into the composition of many alloys, including solder, brasses, and bronzes. Britannia metal is some times made of 84 parts tin, xo parts antimony, 4 parts copper, and 2 parts bismuth, whilst pewter consists of 4 parts tin and r part lead. When strongly heated in the air, tin takes fire and forms stannic oxide, which is also known as “putty powder”a white, insoluble, amorphous substance which tuns yellow on heating, and is not acted upon by acids or alkalies. It is used as a polishingpowder fot steel and glass, and in the manufacture of certain kinds of glass. The lower oxide can be prepared by heating the oxalate out of contact with air, or in a hydrated form by adding a solution of sudium carbonate to one of stannous chloride. It is soluble in acids, forming stannous salts, and when heated in the air, it becomes peroxidized to Sn02. The hydroxide dissolved in sodium hydrate is used by calico printers under the name of “sodium stannite.” Stannic Acid 3 is obtained in hydrated form by adding a solution of calcium carbonate to one of btannic chloride in insufficient quantity for complete precipitation, and, as thus produced, is a white gelatinous body vrhch forms a number of salts, including potassium and sodium stannates, the last named being used as a mordant under the name of “tin preparing salt,” and made by fusing metastannic aiid with caustic soda. Stannous Chloride, a white, crystalline body soluble in water, obtained by dissolving tin in hydrochloric acid, is also employed as socalled “tin salts” by calico printers and dyers and in tin galvanizing. Stannous Chromate, an insoluble substance, is used in decorating porcelain. Stannous Sulphate, a heavy, white, crystalline powder, soluble in water, is used in dyeing. Stannic Chloride is obtained by the action of chlorine gas on the metal, also by passing chlorine in excess through a solution of stannous chloride. In the pure anhydrous state, it is a colourless liquid which boils at 120 degrees C., fumes in the air, and forms several hydrates with water. One of theseviz., SnCl45II20is crystalline, soluble in water, and is also used as a mordant, but for that purpose it: is more usually prepared by dissolving tin in cold aqua regia, when it is commercially known as “oxymuriate of tin.” Stannous Sulphide is formed when tinfoil is introduced into the vapour ot sulphur; the metal then fires and forms the leadencoloured stannous sulphide. Stannic Sulphide is a bright yellow crystalline powder used as a pigment for imitation gilding under the name of “mosaic gold,” and is obtained as the result of complicated changes by heating tin amalgam with sulphur and ammonium chloride in a retort. It is soluble in alkaline sulphide solutions and can be sublimed to some extent. When a solution of gold chloride is added to a dilute solution of stannous chloride a splendid purple colour is produced, and this is a distinguishing test for tin. Stannic Phosphide, made by heating the metal together with phosphorus, is a silverwhite compound, used in the manufacture of phosphor bronze.
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