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BUSH FRUITS

Bush fruits, as is generally understood by the term, consist of the Gooseberry (Ribes Grossularia) ; Red Currant (Ribes ruhru-ni) ; White Currant (Ribes rubrum album) ; Black Currant (Ribes nigrum) ; summer and autumn fruiting Raspberries (Rubus Idaeus), and the Loganberry (an American hybrid). With perhaps the exception of the last named, all are very popular and extensively grown, the demand for the fruit while it is in season being very great. The Loganberry is cultivated principally in private gardens for the sake of the variety which its fruit affords. All are of hardy constitution, easily cultivated, and succeed in all parts of the United Kingdom where soil and climatic conditions are favourable. They are extremely productive and the produce is put to many and diverse uses, such as the making of tarts, preserving, bottling, for dessert and even for medicinal purposes. The Gooseberry is first ready for use, as the fruit possesses the good quahty of being fit for consumption both in a green as well as in a ripe condition. The early large fruiting varieties are those generally grown to afford fruit in the first-mentioned state, as the berries attain a profitable size in advance of the early medium and small fruiting kinds. It iSj however, among the latter, irrespective of season or period of ripening, that the majority of the highly-flavoured luscious sorts are found, and in many instances they are grown apart from the former so that they can be netted in and rendered immune from bird attacks. Red, White, and Black Currants reach maturitybefore the Gooseberry, and, like the last, are, with the exception of the White Currant, in such great demand that the crops prove highly remunerative. Of the four, the Gooseberry is perhaps, from a commercial as well as a private point of view, the most valuable. The white variety is gron to a much more limited extent, and the fruit is, beyond dessert purposes, employed principally for mixing with the red kinds for clarifying in the making of jelly. The cultural treatment necessary for the Gooseberry being similar to that required for the Red, White, and Black Currant, it is unnecessary to deal with each under separate headings. All are extensively cultivated in the form of bushes, but the Gooseberry, Red and White Currants are also now much grown as espaliers and as two, three, and five branched cordons for training on trellises in the open, against fences and outbuildings, and on garden walls having a north aspect, by which means the supply is, in the last-named instance, considerably prolonged. They are also in a few cases grown in the form of standards, the stems being about 4 ft. in height. Bush trees are generally planted 45 ft. apart in the rows, with a distance of 6 ft. between them. Two, three, and iive branched cordons, 134 2 ft., 3 ft., and 5 ft. respectively, and standards 6-8 ft. apart when employed, as is generally the case, as ornamental specimens in borders on either side of a frequented footpath. Espahers may stand 9 ft. apart from each other. Bushes are usually, although not always, planted in breaks varying in number from a few dozens to several hundreds, according to the demand for the fruit. The kind of soil best suited to the needs of the Gooseberry, Red, White, and Black Currants, is in the first three-named instances a rich welldrained loamy medium, and in the last case one of a moister or more retentive nature, but with care in preparation, such as in deeply digging and manuring on a liberal scale, most kinds of soils can be rendered suitable. Not only is it necessary to enrich the soil before planting to ensure vigorous growth, but manure in some form or other must, after the bushes are established and come into bearing, be afforded each year afterwards to maintain their fertility. This should be applied to the surface on the completion of pruning, and be buried or dug in just beneath the surface. With the exception of the Black Currant, all should be accorded a light open position. The species just mentioned prefers and yields the heaviest crops when grown in a semi-shaded position or the coolest part of the garden, such as in the vicinity of a north wall or hedge. The fruit is produced in the case of the Gooseberry on spurs and young wood of the previous seasons growth, on spurs in regard to Red and White Currants, and on the strong young wood with respect to the Black Currant. The three first should have clean stems standing not less than i ft. above the soil level, so that the fruit may not be spoilt by being splashed with soil during rainstorms, while the last should be allowed to branch out freely from the base, and produce vigorous growths annually. In the essentials named it is seen that the cultivation of the Black Currant differs somewhat from that of other fruits under consideration. Propagation is invariably effected by means of cuttings made from straight stout well-ripened shoots of the current seasons production, selected at the time of pruning. These may be from 18-24 ins. in length, and, with the exception of those of the Black Currant, all buds except four or five at the tips should be removed from the cuttings to ensure clean stems and to avoid risk of suckers being pushed up from the base. As the last-named propensity is to be encouraged in the Black Currant, the removal of the buds in this instance is undesirable. The base of the cuttings should be cut close to a joint, and the tops shortened back if the wood is weak or in an immature condition. Autumn or early winter is the best time to plant the cuttings. Set them 6 ins. deep, 9 ins. apart, in rows i ft. asunder, in soil which has been previously manured and well dug. Planting may be performed with a dibber, and the soil should be made quite firm round every cutting. In some instances all five buds left on the cuttingsBlack Currants exceptedwill break, in others but two or three. The shoots which will eventually develop from these breaks should be cut back the following autumn to form the bases of the main branches in the case of trees intended for bushes. All should then be lifted and transplanted 2 ft. apart in rows standing 3 ft. asunder. During the next season enough growths will result to furnish the foundation of the future heads, and in the year following will develop sufficiently to allow of their being planted in their permanent positions. For culture as Cordons, see article on Cordon Fruit Trees. To form Espaliers, take a tree having three shoots, train out the two lower ones horizontally and cut them back somewhat, leaving both of equal length. The third or central shoot should be trained upright, then cut it back, leaving it i ft. in length. The next year train out the leading shoots on the lowermost branches, cutting back all other growths to six leaves in July, and to three buds the following autumn. Train the leading growth on the central cut back shootwhich is now really a continuation of the stem in an upright direction, and select two shoots immediately below it and train them out, one on either side at right angles to form another tier or pair of branches, continuing in this way each year until a sufficient number of branches has been secured. See also Espalier Mode op Fruit Culture. The training as regards Cordons is best done with the aid of stakes. (Standards are usually formed by grafting scions of the Red and White Currant on single-stemmed plants of Ribes aureum.) The Pruning, as regards established bushes of Red and White Currants, consists in cutting back all young shoots in summer or July to six leaves, and further shortening them to two or three buds in autumn or winter. Leave shoots intact where necessary for the filling of vacancies caused by accident or branches dying, and shorten them back in winter to where they are well ripened. Black Currants need different treatment, the pruning being confined to thinning and cutting out as much of the old wood as possible, 135 to make room for that produced during the past and previous season as well as to induce the production of vigorous growth in future. Gooseberries which are to supply fruit in a green state are spurpruned, a certain amount of wellplaced young shoots being left as well on the bushes, the latter being merely tipped. In all other cases the young wood is spurred back to two and three buds. Those varieties of which the growth is of a drooping nature should be pruned so that the branches are well off the ground. In regard to the dessert kinds, the trees should be spur-pruned and the branches disposed widely distant from each other so that gathering may be conveniently done. The pruning of full-grown cordons is performed in the same way, i.e., partly shorten back side-shoots and spur growths in summer and spur in closely to two or three buds in winter. Leave shoots where required to make good losses or to eventually replace decrepit and worn-out branches. The Raspberry succeeds best in an open position in well-manured deeply dug soil of a loamy nature, but with attention to preparation in the manner described and in applying manure annually after the canes come into bearing, most kinds of soil can be rendered suitable to their needs. As regards the cultivation of the summer fruiting varieties, several methods are practised, but that which finds favour generally is to plant the stools 18-24 – apart in rows 6 ft. asunder, and to train the canes to a wire trellis. Very heavy crops of fruit result by pursuing this method. The trellis should be provided with three or four wires running transversely, and be about 5 ft. in height. Propagation is best effected by 136 the young canes or offsets which are pushed up in abundance in the vicinity of the old stools. Dig these up in autumn and transplant I ft. apart in rows 2 ft. asunder, for one season, or they may be. permanently planted at once. The canes should be cut down to within 6 ins. of the soil in February. The following autumn thin out, if necessary, the canes produced during the summer, dispensing with the the weakest and retaining the strongest, tying them temporarily to the wires. The following February give them a final look over, cut off the tips, and on this occasion tie them securely to the trellis. Once the stools are established a great number of shoots or young canes will push up around the stools and between the rows. Of these enough should be left to furnish a supply of canes close to the stool for fruiting in the succeeding year, and cut or hoe off the surplus. After the crop has been gathered the old fruiting canes should be cut out and the new ones of the current seasons growth thinned, leaving the best ripened, strongest, and a sufficient number, so that when finally tied to the trellis in February they will stand from 8-9 ins. apart. Until then they need only be provisionally tied in to prevent them from being blown about and broken by rough winds, as well as for the sake of appearance. The tipping or cutting back should be done some 5 ins. or 6 ins. above the topmost wire. Digging, if indulged in at all between the rows, must be very lightly done or only sufficiently to bury the dressing of manure spread over the surface in the previous autumn. In a great many instances the ground is never dug from the time planting takes place until the plantation is broken up. The autumn fruiting varieties, unlike the preceding, bear on the canes produced durmg the summer months, consequently these, after they have fruited, are cut down to withm a few inches of the ground the following February. In due course new canes are pushed up, which, when sufficiently advanced in growth, are thinned out and tied to the trellis 9 ins. apart. They will fruit abundantly in the autumn, the fruit proving very acceptable for various purposes at this season of the year. In all other respects cultivation and propagation are the same as for the summer fruiting varieties. Much the same treatment is necessary for the Loganberry, with the exception that being of a more rampant habit of growth the trellis should be not less than 6 ft. to 8 ft. in height, as the canes or growths, being so vigorous, often attain a length of 10 ft. to 12 ft. These canes should also be trained and tied more widely apart on the trellis. SELECT LIST OF BUSH FRUITS. Currants : Red and White.l.a. Constante, i La Versaillaise, Raby Castle, Red Dutch, White Dutch Cut Leaved, White Transparent, White Versailles. Black.Baldwins or Carters Champion, Black Naples, Boskoop Giant, Lees Prolific. Gooseberries: Large Red Varieties. Crown Bob, Dans Mistake, Lancashire Lad, Lord Derby, Speedwell, Whinhams Industry. Small Fruited Red Varieties.Ironmonger, Keens Seedling, Red Champagne, Warrington. Large White Varieties.Careless, King of Trumps, Lady Leicester, Lancer, Transparent, Whitesmith. Small Fruited White Varieties.Bright Venus, Cheshire Lass. Large Green Varieties. Stockwell, Telegraph, Thumper. Small Green Fruited Varieties.Glenton Green, Gretna Green, Langley Gage, Ktmaston Greengage. Large Yellow Varieties.Catherine, Criterion, Gunner, Keepsake, Langley Beauty, Leader. Small Fruited Yellow Varieties. Champagne, Golden Drop, Golden Gem, Golden Lion. Those against which an asterisk is placed are a few of the best to grow for gathering from while the fruit is green. Raspberries: Summer Fruiting Varieties. /fei. Baumforths Seedling,Homet, Norwich Wonder, Superlative. Yellow.Antwerp, Guinea, Queen of England. Autumn Fruiting Varieties.Belle de Fontenay, November Abundance, October Red, October Yellow.A. W. See also Kinds of Crops. New Varieties, Blackberry, Himalayan.A freefruiting sort, bearing large panicles of good sized berries. Raspberry, Lloyd George.A perpetual fruiting variety, of good size and excellent flavour.

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CALYSTEGIA

(Bear-bind. Nat. Ord. Convolvulaceae).This is a rather large genus of hardy and halfhardy perennial or evergreen twiners and trailers of little garden value. Probably the most suitable as well as the most attractive is C. Soldanella, a flame-coloured June and July blooming plant about 12 ins. high, though C hederacea plena (Syn. C. pubescens) is a good dwarf rosecoloured twiner. C. septum is the well-known weed the Greater Bindweed or Common Bear-bind, a most troublesome plant the best means of dealing with which will be found described in our article on Weeds under the former name. See also CLIMBING AND TRAILING Plants.

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CAREX

(Sedge. Nat. Ord. Cyperaceae). This is a large genus of hardy perennial and half-hardy or greenhouse grasses or sedges of very little importance in the garden. C. pendula is a good plant for the water garden. Other sorts chiefly suitable for the wild garden include C. flava, the Marsh Hedgehog Grass ; C. glauca, the Carnation Grass ; C. hirta, the Hammer Sedge ; C. paniculata, the Hassock Grass ; and C. Pseudocyperus, the Bastard Cyperus. All are of the easiest culture and spread quickly when once planted. This genus does not contain the Sweet Sedge described in our article on Medicinal Herbs. That belongs to AcoRUs, which see.

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CAULIFLOWER

(Brassica oleracea botrytis cauUflora. Nat. Ord. Cruciferje).These are among the most highly prized of all summer and autumn vegetables, and for this reason they well repay the extra attention necessary if milk-white compact heads of good size and shape are to follow. Many valuable additions have lately been made to the list of sterling varieties, and for this reason it is advisable that selection be not limited to one sort or one sowing. By means of successive sowings, cauliflowers may be had during the whole of the period when the more hardy Broccoli are not available. The first fully developed head should be ready before the end of May, the last, only after severe frost has killed the plants, at quite the end of the year. For Early Work.To supply good heads by 20th May, a sowing should be made in a heated greenhouse or on a mild hotbed early in February. Sow the seed in well-drained pans filled with rich soil, to which sufficient coarse sand has been added to ensure porosity. This is of utmost importance, and where not observed, disastrous results may follow a short time after the seedlings appear above the soil. Sow the seed very thinly to allow for sturdy growth, until each seedling is sufficiently strong to bear transferring to other pans or small pots with the least possible check to growth. Harden off by placing into cooler quarters, and plant out in the sunny borders, or under hand-lights early in April. Sowing Out of Doors.It is rarely safe to do this until the first week in April, and then a sheltered corner exposed to full sunshme should be selected. The seed-bed should be similar to that described in the article on Broccoli (which see). The first fortnight in May will be quite soon enough to make the main sowing ; plants from seed sown at this date usually giving perfect heads until Christmas, or later, if a reliable strain of seed is purchased. Throughout all stages of growth a rich soil should be provided, and until the plants are well established in permanent quarters, they should never be allowed to become dry. On the other hand, a constantly saturated soil should be studiously avoided. Planting Out.As early in the spring as possible, the permanent bed should be liberally manured, burying the manure at least 12 ins., thus enabling the plant to get the full benefit from the moisture this contains, just when bright sun, and possible drought, renders moisture of paramount importance to the hungry young roots. The distance between the early varieties need not exceed 20 ins. each way. Those planted later should be allowed a trifle more room, many of these developing heads equal in size to what are termed the Giant class. The last batch will repay a distance of 3 ft. between the rows and 2 ft. between the plants. Manure water, or an application of artificials, may be given as soon as the roots get well hold of the soil and are growing freely, but where this can only be had in very limited quantities it will be better to defer feeding until the curds are just forming, a little extra stimulant at this stage quickening the development, also adding to the size of the heads. Early crops may also be had by sowing in the open early in August, potting and giving the plants the protection of a garden frame during the winter months, planting out in sunny borders early in April. Varieties : For Earliest Crop. Earliest of All, Early Paris, Eight Weeks, Snowball. Second Early.All the Year Round, Early Erfurt, Early Giant, Magnum Bonum, Matchless, Standwell, Walcheren. Late Autumn.Autumn Giant, Autumn Mammoth, Eclipse, Emperor. F. R. C.

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CHEMISTRY FOR GARDENERS

Chemistry is the science that deals with the changes which matter undergoes. There are also physical changes which take place in connection with matter. The latter are, however, only changes in form, whilst the former are changes in composition. Acids, Bases, and Salts.Readers will find constant references to these elsewhere, so a few words explaining exactly what they are may be useful. An acid considered chemically contains hydrogen, but for our purposes we may say that it has the power of neutralising a base. A base, on the other hand, has properties opposite to those of an acid. If the two combine, a salt is formed. As an example of such changes spirits of salts (hydrochloric acid) may be taken. It has the characteristic properties of an acid, for it is sour to the taste, and it turns blue litmus paper red. If now caustic soda (a base which turns red litmus blue) be added, the properties of the latter disappear at a certam point, for the soda, which is a base, has combined with the acid to form common salt (sodium chloride). Chemical changes such as the abovs are of great importance to gardeners, and an example of a change where undesirable compounds are removed from the soil by this means, is found in liming the land to neutralise the poisonous vegetable acids it may contain after over-manuring. The chemist tells us there are two classes of matter organic and inorganic. By the former is usually understood those substances which have been produced by living organisms (animal or vegetable), whilst inorganic matter has been produced without the aid of a living plant or animal. The distinction between organic and inorganic material is useful, and if by organic is understood what we regard generally as animal or vegetable products, the term is not likely to be wrongly used. Strictly speaking, however, organic chemistry is the branch which deals with the compounds of the element carbon. A great many of the changes which give rise to new compounds take place in solution, and water is the solvent that most commonly comes into consideration. Some elements or compounds do not dissolve in water nearly so easily as others ; but nothing is really insoluble, although such materials as glass, metals, etc., only dissolve after they have been heated in water for lengthy periods. In the soil, as also in the plant, water plays a most important part as a solvent and as an aid to chemical changes. Generally speaking, hot water dissolves materials better than cold ; the hotter the water gets the greater its power is of dissolving. Also, if a little acid is added, many compounds otherwise insoluble dissolve readily. A good illustration of this last point is shown in the ease with which water containing carbon dioxide gas (which compound is a weak acid) acts upon many minerals in the soil and dissolves them, though pure water does not dissolve them at all. In view of the special importance of certain elements and their compounds in gardening, a few short notes on these are given below. For further particulars, reference must be made, however, to some book on systematic chemistry. Oxygen.This element (a gas existing in air) is of first importance, as it enters so easily into combination with other elements. When carbon bums, it combines with oxygen and yields carbon dioxide gas. When an animal breathes, it takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide gas. A plant, however, takes in carbon dioxide gas and gives out oxygen ; and in the soil oxygen from the air produces or assists in the production of new compounds. Hence the wisdom of rough digging in the winter to expose as large an area of the soil to the air as possible. Nitrogen.This is the element which makes up practically four-fifths of the air. It differs very markedly from oxygen in that it is, whilst in the free state, an inactive gas. When combined with other elements nitrogen i86 gives rise to very diiierent substances, some of them most active, e.g. aqua fortis (nitric acid), ammonia, etc., whilst others, such as nitrate of soda and nitrate of potash, are of great importance to the plant and the animal. Both plants and animals require nitrogen, and as it is only the leguminous plants which have the power of using nitrogen gas, the use of nitrogenous manures, such as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia, is widespread. In fact the whole group of nitrogenous manures (see article on Manuring, Principles of) is of fundamental interest and value. Caibon.This is another important element from the gardeners point of view. In a pure form carbon is seen in charcoal made from sugar. It is the compounds of carbon which are of more interest. As already mentioned, organic chemistry is nowadays regarded as dealing with the compounds of carbon. Carbon dioxide gas, which is formed when carbon unites with oxygen, is the gas produced when coal or wood bums ; also carbon dioxide is breathed out by plants and animals day and night. Also carbon dioxide gas is the source from which the plant, thanks to its green leaf and the power of sunshine, prepares sugars and starches, which are known as carbohydrates. Cellulose is another carbohydrate ; it makes up the woody or stem portion of the plant. The carbohydrates all contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Phosphorus.This important element is related chemically to nitrogen, and it is also a substance of great value to the plant. The element itself is of no use to the gardener, but it combines readily with oxygen, giving an oxide which dissolves in water and thus produces phosphoric acid. When a base is added, salts called phosphates are produced. There are many of these, some containing more acid than others. Those with the greatest amount of The last two elements are present in all carbohydrates in the proportions in which they form water. This is easily shown by adding strong sulphuric acid to one of them, as, for instance, sugar. Chemical action sets in, a mass of pure black carbon is formed, and dilute sulphuric acid (i.e. acid to which some water has been added) remains. Editor. acid dissolve in water most freely, and are thus of great value for plant life. They are known as acid manures. Insoluble phosphates may be made soluble by the addition of sulphuric acid, which robs the compound of part of its base, and leaves an acid phosphate (soluble) and usually an insoluble sulphate. Other Elements.The elements described above have all been nonmeiallic, and in the same group we include many others, such as chlorine, sulphur, silicon, and hydrogen, which are of importance, but which must be passed over here. The metallic elements, as the name implies, have the general properties of metals, and a few notes on some of them are given below. Calcium.This element occurs in limestone, which is a carbonate of calcium, and quicklime, which is calcium oxide. Liming consists of applying this element to the soil in a suitable form. See article on Lime. Calcium combines readily with acids and forms salts. Those of greatest importance are included in our article on L/ME Compounds. Iron.Plants require this element in order that the green colouring matter of their leaves may be properly formed. Iron salts are also used in spraying mixtures. Iron is more fully dealt with in our article Iron and Iron Compounds. Magnesium is closely allied to calcium. Potassium and Sodium.These are two elements which form salts of great economic irnportance. Both elements are widely distributed, but potassium (which is abundant as a double silicate in clay) is, of course, the most important. Plants absorb potash from the soil, and when they are burnt the potash remains in their ash. In addition to its being found in clay, potash also occurs in large deposits, as at Stasfurt, from which kainit is obtained. These deposits also supply some of the impure sulphate and muriate (or chloride) of potash used as artificial fertilisers. Sodium also occurs in nature very freely, chiefly as common salt. From this caustic soda (used in spraying), carbonate of soda (or washing soda), and indeed most other compounds, can be easUymade. The chief potash and soda compounds, with instructions for their use, are given in our articles on Potash and Potassium Compounds, and Soda and Sodium Compounds. Ammonia.This, though a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, is regarded by chemists as if it were a metalUc element, and it certainly forms many compounds with acids (such as sulphate of ammonia), of great use to the gardener. It is dealt with more fully in our article Ammonia and Ammonium Compounds.W. Gdn, See also EDUCATION and Gardening.

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CHRYSANTHEMUMS,

Cultivatioh OF.In the British Isles the Chrysanthemum, botanically termed Chrysanthemum sinense, has been aptly termed”The Queen of Autumn,”and again,”The Autumn Queen”or”Autumn Glory.”It is a general favourite, because it embraces so many types and varieties, and while it responds in a remarkable way to skill and attention in culture, yet is wonderfully patient of neglect, plants often floweringfreely in autumn after weeks of inattention. Coming into bloom in the dull season when flowers are scarce, the handsome plants adorn the greenhouse for several weeks, providing a display unequalled by any other subject of cultivation. Propagation.This is carried out in winter and early spring by means of cuttings obtained from basal growths which emerge from the roots after the parent plant has grown to m.aturity. The cuttings strike root readily in a temperature of about 50 degrees F., and in from six to eight weeks are ready to be transplanted. The greenhouse varieties, which flower in October, November, and December, are usually grown in pots throughout the season, so that after the cuttings have struck root they require to be potted on into larger-sized pots, continuing this process about every six weeks until the end of June, by which time the plants should be in 8-inch pots. They then need all the light and air possible, and an exposed situation in the garden should be chosen. Bamboo stakes should be inserted at the final potting, since the plants grow tall as a rule and need support. During the month of July careful attention is necessary to provide a plentiful supply of water, and towards the end of the month a little stimulant may be added to the water. In August the flowerbuds form, and, to secure early blooms, the side-growths which emerge from the base of the buds must be removed. As the flowerbuds begin to swell up, manure water and weak soot water may be given with increasing frequency as time goes on. By the middle of September the greenhouse or conservatory should be in -readiness to receive the plants. There is always much danger of harm from frost, and boisterous wind and heavy rain should be avoided at this stage. Any plants which are showing the colour of the petals must be housed in good time, but the later-flowering varieties, and Singles which flower on terminal sprays, may be left out for another week or two if the weather is open. Groups or Types.Chrysanthemums may be divided into two main groups : first, the outdoor or earlyflowering varieties; and secondly, the indoor or late-flowering varieties. Outdoor Chrysanthemums have been improved to a wonderful degree within the last few years, and there is now a host of varieties of every hue, some flowering in early August, others in September, and quite a number in October ; but these latter often require shelter to preserve them from rain and frost. In addition to the double-flowering outdoor varieties there are many charming single-flowering sorts which are useful for garden decoration, or as cut flowers. The Pompons are popular for outdoor culture, and nothing can excel them for hardiness, as they survive the worst weather, coming up with remarkable vigour every spring. The outdoor varieties are propagated in the same way as the indoor kinds, namely, from cuttings ; but the plan more generally adopted is to divide up the old stools in March, selecting young growths with roots attached and throwing away the remainder. These young plants, put into well-prepared ground in a fairly open situation, will grow freely during the summer if given water occasionally in hot weather, and a mulching of short stable manure in July will assist in building up good blooms for a display in August or September, according to the variety. Indoor or Late-flov/ering varieties may be divided into several sections. Firstly, we have the large Double-flowering exhibition Chrysanthemum, generally called the”Japanese”; some have incurving petals, others with the petals reflexed. Secondly, there is a numerous class known as Decorative varieties, similar in many respects to the exhibition Japanese, but more adapted for yielding a quantity of medium-sized flowers rather than two or three monster blooms on a plant. The Incurved varieties are largely grown for their shapely blooms, the petals all curving in to the centre, so that it is the back of the petals which is visible. Then there is the Single-flowering type, which is now very popular and bids fair to outrival all the other kinds for lightness and graceful decorative effect. Large single blooms may be obtained with a diameter of from 6-7 ins. by disbudding, mediumsized blooms by thinning other varieties moderately ; while yet there are some varieties which must be allowed to grow quite naturally, the result being that they form a bush covered with sprays of small starshaped blooms. The single form of the Chrysanthemum yields nothing to the double types in variety of colouring, while many of the varieties are sweet-scentedj the perfume reminding one somewhat of honey. The Pompons and Anemone Pompons are delightful in every way, and are worthy of inclusion in any collection. Then there is a type which finds favour with those who are fond of quaintnessthe feathery, spidery, and thread-petalled varieties. When all of the types are represented in a large collection the effect is wonderful. To Get New Sorts.New varieties are obtained by sowing seeds saved from plants which have been properly cross fertilised with other varieties. Seeds sown in February in a genial temperature in the greenhouse will flower the same season in November, so that the raiser has not long to wait to see the result of his attempt to add to the list of varieties. If the novelty thus raised finds favour, the raiser, of course, has the privilege of naming it. The”singles”are very easy to propagate from seed ; so much so, that many nurserymen offer packets of seed every winter at low prices. Of course in these packets the seeds are not likely to produce valuable novelties, although occasionally such is the case, and the grower finds it worth while to perpetuate a promising plant. > New varieties are also obtained by means of”sports”; that is, a plant occasionally develops a different coloured flower on one stem to those on the remainder of the plant. Cuttings are obtained from the sportive stem, and the new colour is thus perpetuated under another name. A variety named Caprice du Printemps has yielded quite a number of”sports”in this way, 196 and they are designated Bronze Cap, Red Cap, White Cap, etc. The Chrysanthemum has many enemies, which, if allowed to carry on their ravages unchecked, will rob the grower of all prospect of success. In the early stages the green fly and the leaf miner are the worst enemies. For methods of dealing with these pests, see article on Insect Pests. The Chrysanthemum is heir to two very insidious diseases in summer, which, if not taken in time, are very dangerous to the life of the plant.”Fungus,”which attacks the underside of the lower leaves, assumes the form of rusty-brown rings, which increase and spread until the fohage goes off entirely as if it had been scorched by fire.”Rust”is another disease, which is very similar in character to”Fungus,”but is caused by overcrowding chiefly, whereas the other disease will appear in the best regulated garden, where everything is done to ensure the good health of the Chrysanthemum plants. (Mildew is also troublesome, especially in the earlier stages of growth. Editor.) For preventative measures, see article dealing with Diseases of Plants. It will be seen from the above brief description of the Chrysanthemum that the culture has vast possibilities for the beginner, and the enthusiastic amateur is always welcomed into the ranks of Chrysanthemum growers. Selection of Sorts.The varieties now in cultivation are almost legion, owing to propagation from seed offering so little difficulty, and also to the fact that the Royal Horticultural Society and the National Chrysanthemum Society both offer inducement to raisers of useful novelties. The beginner is positively bewildered at first blush to know what to start with, but the speciahsts who offer plants for sale will as a rule give advice willingly on the subject of forming a collection of varieties of easy culture for an mitial start. The autumn flowershows, both local and central, are very educational, as all the choicest varieties are there seen at their best. Lists, if given here, would be of very little use, as varieties become so quickly out of date. Hence readers are referred to raisers or Chrysanthemum specialists. Jas. C.

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COIX

(Nat. Ord. Graminese). This is a genus of half-hardy perennial grasses. The best species is C. Lacryma-Jobi, the popular Jobs Tears, described under the form.er name in our article on Ornamental Grasses.

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COREOPSIS

(TiCKSEED. Nat. Ord. Compositse).The Annual Species of this genus are slender plants, and though they often need a little support such as a few foothigh twigs afford, they are free flowering, elegant subjects, suitable alike for the border or for the reserve garden where plants are grown for the production of flowers for cutting. Rich brown and goldenyeUow are the predominating colours. Although hardy in the southern counties, an autumn sowing cannot always be depend*ed upon, unless the soil is light and well drained. Fine plants result from a March or early April sowing made in drills from whence the seedlings should be transferred to their flowering quarters when about 3 ins. high. A popular method of raising them is to treat them as half-hardy annuals and sow seeds in heat in February. The following are the most useful species : Coreopsis aristosa. A yellow autumn flowering sort growing 2 J fti high. C. aikinsoniana (Syn. Calliopsis atkinsoniana).A yellow sort with a brown centre, blooming throughout the summer, and growing 3 ft. high. C. cardaminefolia.A yellow and purple – brown summer flowering sort growing 2 ft. high. The dwarf form C. c. nana is very useful for edging, as it only grows 9-12 ins. in height. C. coronata.A yellow and crimson-brown, summer flowering, Texan sort, growing about 2 ft. high. C. Drummondii (S3T1. C. diversifolia). A crimson and yellow summer flowering sort, making a very handsome garden plant. It grows 2 ft. high. C. tinctoria.A brown and yellow sort flowering all through the summer. Its variety atropurpurea is a handsome garden plant. Both have given many interesting and beautiful forms, some of which are quite dwarf, rarely more than i ft. high, with crimson-brown or yellowbrown flowers. A comparatively new race has starry blooms and is known as Cactus-flowered ; Golden Crown is dwarf yellow and orange ; while Lemon Queen, taller, is possibly a form of C. Drummondii. There is also a double or semi-double form with yellow and brown flowers. Perennial Border Species.These are useful hardy herbaceous plants for the border and shrub border. They succeed in ordinary garden soil in a sunny site, and may be propagated in the usual way by seeds sown in the summer, or division of the roots in the autumn or spring, at which times they may also be successfully planted. Quite a number of species have been described ; of these we recommend the following, most of which are useful for cutting : Coreopsis auriculata.This bears yellowish flowers in June and July, and grows 4-6 ft. high. C. delphinifolia. This yellow sort blooms in July and August, and grows I yd. high. C. grandiflora. This also is yellow, and blooms in August and September. It grows about 3 ft. high. C. lanceolata.This is a biennial or short-lived perennial, producing jellow flowers in August and growing I yd. high. C. latifolia.This is similar to the above, but perennial. C. rosea.This is a pretty sort bearing red flowers in July and August, and growing i| ft. high. C. sent folia.This bears yellow flowers in August and September, and averages 3-4J ft. high. C. trichosperma (Syn. C. aurea). This is a biennial or short-lived perennial, bearing yellow flowers in August and September, and growing about i yd. high. C. tripteris (Golden Crown). This is a useful tall-growing sort for the back of borders, shrubbery margins, etc. It produces yellow flowers in August and September, and often grows 6 ft. high. C. verticillata.This is a slender grower bearing pretty yellow flowers from July to August, on plants about 12 ins. high.

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CROCUS

(Nat. Ord. Iridaceae). History.The Crocus family is a large one, and has been known in one part of the world or another from the earliest times of which we have any historical record. Crocus colour or saffron was the imperial colour of ancient Chinese civilisation. The rich glow of a mass of the ordinary garden yellow crocus attracted poor Forbes Watson, for in one of his exceptionally charming essays he writes :”The Yellow Crocus is a perfect flower, leaving nothing that we could wish to add to or alter”(Flowers and Gardens, page 33, first edition). This large yellow variety (along with the large purple, the striped, and the white) is alone thought of by many people when they think of a Crocus. These so-called Dutch or Florists Crocuses, however, by no means represent anything Uke 236 the whole family. There are numerous species, which, although as a rule they have smaller and more delicate-looking blooms, are even more beautiful as individuals, and are by no means to be despised for the show many of them are capable of making when massed together. Moreover, some of them begin to flower in the autumn, from which time there is an orderly succession of flowers until the last whites of the Dutch varieties finish the season. These species are now coming very much to the front, and already there are, for example, hybrids of Crocus chrysanthus on the market, e.g. E. A. Bowles, Siskin, and Yellow Hammer. As most Crocuses seed freely, the production of new varieties by cross fertilisation and selection offers a most interesting hobby to anyone who can give a little time and attention to them. Culture.Any good fairly light garden soil suits the Crocus. It is obvious that the autumn and winter flowering varieties must be planted in June or July, and that warm, sheltered nooks should be chosen if they are to be seen at their best. Failing this, they should have the protection of a cold frame. Two or three frames 6 ft. by 4 ft., with autumn and winter species of Crocus planted out in them, afford almost constant bloom all through the darkest days of the year, if the selection is well made. Some of the early spring flowering species, such as Crocus Sieberi, do very well in pots, if grown from start to finish with a minimum of heat and plenty of air. Dorothea, a Dutch variety, is also exceptionally good as a pot plant. Species and Varieties.These may be divided into (i) Dutch or Florists Varieties ; and (2) Species and Species Varieties, or Hybrids. The height of all Crocuses rarely exceeds 6 ins. DUTCH VARIETIES : Mauve. Dorothea. Purple.Caesar, Hero, and purpurea grandiflora. Striped.Edina, Margot, Mikado, Sir W. Scott. White.Kathleen Parlow, May, Mt Blanc, White Lady. Yellow.There is only one yellow called the Yellow Dutch. This never seeds, hence all propagation must be by increase of the corms. SPECIES AND HYBRIDS : Autumn-flowering : Crocus asturicus. Purple. C. longiflorus (Syn. C. odorus). Soft lilac, deeper feathering at base of flower. C. pulchellus.Lavender. C. sativus (Saffron Crocus). Purple-lilac. C. speciosus.Blue-purple. Aitchisonii is a much improved subvariety. C zonatus.Rosy-lilac, with a yellow and orange zone in the centre and tube. Spring-flowering:CrocMi aureus.Golden-yellow. C. biflorus.White – feathered violet. C. chrysanthus.Shades of yellow, but varies a good deal. C. Imperati.Purple, outside fawn. C. tommasinianus.Lavender. C. Sieberi.-Buey-lia.c. C. susianus.Deep yellow or dark orange, with brown flames on the exterior.J. J. & E.

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DAFFODILS

(Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacese). History.British gardens have had Daffodils in them for hundreds of years ; but within the last quarter of a century they have risen to a prominence which has been most marked. There is hardly a garden of any size without its Daffodils, and shows for Daffodils have been established in various centres. In New Zealand they are even more a feature of spring shows than in the old country. About the end of the eighteenth, and in the early half of the nineteenth centuries, it was the Polyanthes or bunch-flowered varieties that alone were considered worthy of notice, but the one-flowered hold the pride of place to-day. The change has been brought about by the work of Herbert, Dean of Manchester, Backhouse of York, Leeds of Manchester, Barr of London, and more especially Engleheart of Dinton, the most famous raiser of new 244 varieties who has ever lived. The modem developments of the flower are simply surprising. For convenience of reference the family has been divided into sections by the Daffodil Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society. Classlfleation : R.H.S. Classified List of Daffodils.This list is most useful. All the schedules of Daffodil shows are more or less arranged according to its provisions, and in bulb dealers catalogues the Daffodil part usually follows its main outlines. The divisions are based on (i) colour, (2) blood relationship, and (3) the general shape of the bloom, which depends on the proportions which the central part of the flower, or the corona, bears to the petals, or to write more strictly botanically, the perianth segments. (When the parts of the calyx and corolla are like one another, as in the Narcissus or Daffodil family, they are usually spoken of as a Perianth.) The following are the divisions : (a) Trumpet Daffodils.The trumpet or corona is as long as or longer than the perianth segments. The sub-divisions depend on colour ; e.g. (i) Yellow, (2) White, (3) Bicolor. (b) Incomparabilis.The cup or corona must be not less than onethird, but less than equal to the length of the perianth segments. The sub-divisions depend on the colour of the perianth ; (i) Yellow perianths, (2) White perianths. (c) -Barrii.The cup or corona must be less than one -third the length of the perianth segments. The sub-divisions depend on the colour of the perianth ; (i) Yellow perianths, (2) White perianths. (d) Leedsii.The perianths must be white, with white, cream, or pale citron cups, which are sometimes tinged with pink or apricot. The sub-divisions depend upon size ; e.g. (i) Flowers of Incomparabilis proportions, (2) Flowers of Barrii proportions. (e) Triandrus Hybrids. All varieties which obviously contain triandrus blood, such as Queen of Spain (yellow), and Venetia (white). (/) Cyclamineus Hybrids. Flowers with cyclamineus as one of the parents. (g) JoNQUiLLA Hybrids.Varieties of Narcissus Jonquilla parentage, such as Buttercup, Odorus, etc. etc. Jonquil blood gives richness and smoothness of texture. (h) Tazetta AND Tazetta Hybrids. These are the Polyanthes Narcissus of gardens. The new poetaz (hybrids between a poet and a bunch-flowered or tazetta variety) are also included. (

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