(Burnt Candytuft. Nat. Ord. Cruciferae). Many of the perennial species are suitable for the rock garden. These thrive in well-drained sandy soil in a sunny position, and are propagated by cuttings in July or by seeds in March. Roek Garden Species. The best are briefly described below : Mihionema amoenum.Shrubby. Leaves glaucous, entire. Flowers pink in long racemes. Site, sunny ledge. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, 9 ins. /E. coridijolium (Syn. Iheris jucunda). The bushy Lebanon Candytuft. Leaves glaucous. Flowers rosy – pink. Site, sunny ledge. Soil gritty. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 6 ins. jE.grandijfiorum.Shrubby. Leaves glaucous. Flowers rosy-pink in long racemes. Site, simny ledge. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, i-ij ft. .M. puldiellum.Shrubby. Leaves very glaucous. Flowers rosy-purple. Site suimy. Soil gritty. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, 6 ins. iETHUSA (Nat. Ord. Umbelliferse). Only one species of this is grown at Kew, namely, M. Cynapium (Syns. jE. elata and jE. micrantha), the well-known weed popularly called Fools Parsley. It is a poisonous plant of no garden value whatever, and is described in our article on Weeds.
General Culture of. There are a great many gardeners who tell one they can never succeed in growing annuals, and this fact is astonishing. There is no real difficulty in the way of cultivating most annuals, yet there are a few little points which are essential for success. Sow Thinly in April. Unless annuals are sown in the autumn, which to my mind is not to be strongly commended, they should be sown in April, and preferably during the first week. Previous to this the soil should be dug up and some rotten manure worked in well down. This last is important, for the roots of the annuals ought to have to go and find the manure. If possible all the digging should be done more than a month before sowing, to let the soil become quite firm again. The position where the seeds are to be sown should be lightly raked over, and for Mignonette trodden firm, or the seed may be lost in the air crevices. It goes without saying that the dwarfest annuals should be sown closest to the edging of the plot, with the taller ones behind. So I pass on to the seed sowing itself. Annuals should mostly be grown in sunny positions. Sow thinlythat is essential. Small seed should be mixed with about ten times its bulk of fine sand or soil, and the whole distributed evenly over the ground. The bed may then be lightly covered with fresh fine soil, and made firm with a trowel. Do not under any consideration apply even a small quantity of fertiliser when sowing, for besides not requiring it, it may be positively harmful to the annuals at this early stage. Generally speaking, it is best to sow annuals in clumps, and these should be of good size. Clarkias, Godetias, Love-in-a-Mist (Nigella), and Shirley Poppies look specially well in clumps. As soon as the seedlings are an inch or two high, thin rigorously if needed. This thinning must be repeated three or four times if the seedlings come up too thickly. Wellgrown specimens of Clarkia, Godetia, or Mignonette want plenty of room 6 ins. apart, finally, is none too much. Stake Early.Annuals are quickgrowing subjects and are easily broken down by rain, and blown about. Thus ties and stakes should be supplied at an early date. Several sticks can be arranged round the outside of a clump, and bast stretched from one to the others. Sunflowers require a single stake, of course, and it must be a strong one. As the annuals grow give extra ties, and it is very unlikely that they will look anything but tidy and beautiful. Watering, etc.Many annuals are very fond of water, and this should be given liberally during the summer months. If lawn mowings or old hotbed manure be spread round the roots this will help to conserve the moisture. Clarkias, Mignonette, and many others may be used for cutting ; and cut them with no hesitation. On no account let dead flowers remain on any annual, or it will cease flowering. Cut them ofE at once as soon as formed : such work might well be done every day, and even then that would not be too often. It is unnecessary to give lists of annuals, as these can be found in the article on Annuals for All Purposes already given. This is but a brief sketch of the culture of annuals. In so short an article one cannot do more than give the main points.E.
Reed. Nat. Ord. Gramineae).This is a genus of plants of no great garden value. A. Donax, the Provence Reed, is sometimes grown in the wild garden, shrub border, or water garden, under the impression that it is the Pampas Grass (see notes on Cortaderia and Ornamental Grasses). It flowers much more freely than the last named, though not nearly so elegant, and grows 9-12 ft. in height.
These are usually necessary to support higher ground in the garden, and are preferable to walls inasmuch as they can be made far more beautiful. There are various kinds of banks, on some of the more important of which we enlarge below : Grass Banks.These are the most unsatisfactory of all banks, inasmuch as they are very rarely tidy and hardly ever look well. The grass has to be kept short, and this is not easy even with a scythe, since, if the banks are at all steep, it is impossible to use the tool. For the same reason it is impossible to use the mowing machine. Grass banks are fortunately less common than they were ten years ago ; it is time they gave place to something more beautiful. Rock Banks.Rocks of varying sizes may be used with great effect for the holding up of soil to form banks, and these are about the most satisfactory kind of bank there is. Herbaceous plants, rock plants, and most of the hardier subjects described in our article on Climbing AND Trailing Plants, may be effectively used for clothing them, and where the choicer alpines are used, some rocky steps should be arranged at intervals so that it is easy to get to them for the purpose of watering. Rose Banks.Where turf banks exist it would be much better either to remove the grass altogether or to take out holes in it, and in both cases to plant rambler roses on it. Such sorts as Crimson Rambler, Dorothy Perkins, Minnehaha, and White Dorothy simply revel in such sites if the soil is made reasonably rich. Very little pruning is necessary, and the more the roses are allowed to have their own way the more lovely they look. Shrub Banks.These are far too abundant and cannot be recommended, since none of the choicer shrubs look really happy on them, with the exception, perhaps, of the stronger Rhododendrons on very slightly sloping banks. The coarser Laurels and so on will thrive well enough, but are apt to become leggy and ugly, while Azaleas and the choicer Rhododendrons, though often used for clothing such banks, seldom do as well as they would in shrub borders. The average shrub bank is as unspeakably ugly as a rose bank is unspeakably lovely. Wild Banks.These are often necessary and look well in the wild garden. In the winter they are beautiful with woodland – loving bulbs, and in the summer wild annual flowers are usually grown on them. Wild banks often lead down to lakes or ponds for the wild garden, and should never be far removed from the water garden. A combination of wild gardening and shrub gardening on a gentle slope leading down to a lake has great possibilities, and if flowering shrubs are freely used some wonderful colour pictures may result.E.
(Nat. Ord. Amaryllidaceae). This is a genus of halfhardy bulbs, the outdoor culture of which is only possible in the warmest of districts, greenhouse treatment giving the best results elsewhere. Light rich soil with plenty of rotted leaf-mould suits them admirably. B. geminiflora is the best known species, and bears red flowers in July and August on plants about 12 ins. high.E.
(Nat. Ord. Acanthacese). This is not widely known or widely grown, but comes in as a hardy perennial for the herbaceous border. Culture.This requires the usual treatment given to other hardy perennials. It may be successfully grown out of doors in a sandy soil to which some peat has been added. It may be planted in the autumn or spring, and is increased by division of the roots in February. What to Grow.Only one sort has come to my notice as being worthy of cultivation. Future research may show the presence of others. The species in question (Calophanes oblongifolia) bears a blue flower dotted with violet or purple. It blooms from August onwards, and averages about 12 ins. in height.
(Nepeta. Nat. Ord. Labiatae).No gardening diction ary would be complete without a brief reference to this plant which brings back by its appearance and its aromatic scent thoughts of happy childhood days, spent rambling among flowers in old world gardens. Catmint culture is on the decline, and more is the pity, for the silverygrey foliage of the plants makes a thick and beautiful carpet along the front of the perennial borders, and knolls in the rock garden covered with Catmint are remarkably pleasing. The least desirable species of all, N. Gleck(mta, is with other species used in herbal medicine. Culture of Catmint is a remarkably easy matter. Plants should preferably be purchased in the autumn and then set in good rich ground to flower, and grow with great freedom the following season. Propagation is an easy matter ; the best means of effecting this is by division of the roots in March, but cuttings of young growth slipped ofi after the plants have flowered will also give satisfactory plants. We recommend the following, all of which are hardy perennials : Nepeta Cataria.This is so similar to iV. Mtissini that it is often mistaken for it. N. GUchoma.This, the Ground Ivy, and its variety imriegata, the Variegated Ground Ivy, are both undesirable and weedy plants which showld not be groWn save for medicinal purposes, and even then strictly limited. N. longiflora.This nurseryntems sort, given specific rank at Kew, is practically indistinguishable from N. Mttssini, and may be considered synonymous with it. N. macrantha.This bears pretty blue flowers in July and Augmst, on pkats 12-18 ins. tugh. N. Mmssini.This; is the species we are fondest of, with its scented silvery-grey carpeting foliage amd violet or blue-violet flowers. It blooms all the summer, and average.- 9-12 ins. high. N. Nepetella.This is the prettv plant popularly known as Small Catmint, bearing red flowers from June onwards, and growing 9-12 in?, high. See also POTHERBS.
(Brassica Hybrid. Nat. Ord. Cruciferse). This is one of the most useful additions to the list of winter vegetables, but up till now it appears to be but little grown by the amateur or small grower, yet it is to such as these the plant has special recommendations. Now that the true value of fresh vegetables is becoming more fully recognised, we may expect this plant to receive the attention it deserves. In appearance this is quite distinct from the ordinary winter greens, combining the qualities of a Cabbage and BroccoHj being equal in hardiness to the first-named, but the large leaves enclose the head of a Broccoli and thus protect it. Every part of the plant may be eaten, the green leaves being of a decidedly better flavour than ordinary Cabbage. Culture.Seed should be sown in the open garden towards the end of March, a rich seed-bed being equally as important as thin sowing. When the young plants have grown 6 or 7 ins. high, it will be better to transfer them to a temporary nursery bed rather than risk ruination of the crop through weak growth resulting from an overcrowded seed-bed. As the plants are less able to withstand severe frost than the more common Kales, the importance of short sturdy growth can hardly be over-estimated. The summer quarters for the plants should be well manured, and the soil dug to a good depth. Not less than 30 ins. between the rows should be allowed, and whenever possible the same distance between the plants, giving copious waterings during dry weather. At the approach of severe frost, protect all heads which are rapidly developing Broccoh inside with tufts of hay, straw, or paper.F. R. C.
Metallic Copper is of very little use to the gardener save for making hghtning conductors for his greenhouses, or in the form of wire for renewing the fuses in his electric lighting or heating mstallation Its compounds, however, form an important class, chiefly as fungicides, though the sulphate has been used as a fertiliser for lawns when added in extremely small quantities to lawn sands. In the copper compounds we have poisonous materials the use of which still requires much experiment, but it is believed that in this element there exists a cure for that fell disease Clubroot if a suitably mild material could be produced at a cheap rate. If applied to the soil, copper must be used in the remotest of small quantities, as up to now it has served to injure rooting rather than to encourage it. As regards the compounds. Copper Carbonate, Copper Chloride, Copper Oxide, and Copper Phosphate have never yet come to the fore horticulturally, hence it is needless to give details concerning them here. COPPER ACETATE.This is not of much use to the gardener, though its basic salt popularly known as Verdigris is sometimes used as an ingredient for indelible ink. COPPER ACETO-ARSENITE. This is usually a bright green solid, and is used to a certain extent as a fungicide. It is the chief ingredient in Paris Green (see article on Insect Pests : General Methods of Destruction). COPPER ARSENATE. This has been suggested as a cure for Wart Disease of Potatoes, and also as a general fungicide. Unfortunately its use has not so far been satisfactory, and no striking results have been obtained. It has undoubted possibilities, however, and experiments with it should be carefully watched. COPPER NITRATE.This is a chemical with a future before it in horticultureof that there can be little doubt. It is suggested that it could be prepared cheaply by adding a solution of Calcium Nitrate (see article on Lime Compounds) to a strong solution of Copper Sulphate. This last is very cheap, as most gardeners know. Experiments with the present compoiind as a cure for clubroot and other diseases are, we understand, in progress, but it is too soon to say with any certainty that it fulfils what is hoped. COPPER SULPHATE. This, popularly known as Blue Stone, is the most important copper compound, and is largely used for the making of Bordeaux and Burgundy Mixtures, and as an ingredient in indelible ink. Its use in the former capacity is described in our article on Spraying Mixtures and Fungicides, while the latter use is briefly referred to in our notes on Ink in the article on Garden Labels.E.
(Ladys Slipper. Nat. Ord. Orchidacese). This beautiful hardy plant is suitable for the shady part of the rock garden, and is propagated by division of the crowns in the autumn or spring. What to Grow.We briefly describe the best sorts below : Cypripedium Calceolus.A tufted plant with broad leaves on stout stems. Flowers, sepals, and petals brown ; lip yellow. Site shade. Soil calcareous rocky loam. Flowering Period, May to June. Height li ft. C. californicum.-This too is tufted. Flowers, sepals, and petals tawny – yellow ; lip blush – white, spotted brown. Site shade. Soil moist, peaty. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, ij ft. C. humile (Syn. C. acaule). This has no stems. Leaves in pairs, broad. Flowers, sepals, and petals greenish; lip rosy-purple. Site shade. Soil moist, peaty, leafy. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, 6 ins. C. macranthum.A strong growing plant with tufted stems. Flowers, sepals, petals, and lip deep purple-rose, and large. Site half-shade. Soil sandy loam and limestone. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, t ft. C. macranthum album.A variety with pure white flowers. C. montanum.A distinct and desirable plant. Flowers, sepals, and petals brownish-purple ; lip whitestriped, red inside, and 3-4 on a stem. Site shade. Soil moist sandy peat. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, I ft. C. pubescens (Syn. C. hirsutum). A free -growing species. Flowers, sepals, and petals yellowish-brown ; lip pale yellow. Site shade. Soil moist sandy peat. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, i J ft. C. spectabile (Syn. C. Reginae). The finest species of all. Flowers several on a stem, sepals and petals white ; lip rose colour. Site half-shade. Soil well-drained heavy loam. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 2 ft. C. ventricosum.A hybrid between C. macranthum and C. Calceolus, and intermediate in character. W. I. See also HARDY ORCHIDS and Orchids.