What is SULPHONATION?

The treatment of organic bodies with sulphuric acid whereby sulphonic acids are produced, the products containing the group SOa,OH. 1 hus benzene, treated with fuming sulphuric acid, yields benzene sulphonic acid: SULPHUR Atomic weight, 32. Large quantities of sulphur are found naturally in Japan, Spain, and the United States of America, also in volcanic districts, including Italy, Sicily, and Iceland, and there are considerable beds of it in the Locken mines southeast of Trondhjem, Transylvania, China, India, and California. The Sicilian production of sulphur in igig was 181,374 tons. Sulphur is also found naturally in various forms as sulphides, of which the best known are galena, or lead sulphide, zinc blende, or zinc sulphide, iron pyrites, or iron sulphide, and copper pyrites. Cinnabar is a natural mercury sulphid”. The mineral gypsum, or calcium sulphate, contains sulphur in combination with calcium and oxygen and water whilst heavy spar also contains sulphur in the form of barium sulphate. Sulphur is obtained from its crude natural form by melting and vaporization, by which moans it is sublimed and thus purified. As a constituent of pyrites, it is utilized in the manufacture of sulphuric acid described elsewhere, and it can be made from the sulphurized oxide of iron resulting from the process used in gasworks for freeing the gas from hydrogen sulphide. This is done either by burning off the sulphur into the form of sulphur dioxide or oxidation of the sulphurized mass, thereby revivifying the ferric oxide: 2FeS + 30 + 3HaO = 2Fe3 + 2S, the sulphur thus set free being subsequently distilled or burnt off. The total amount of sulphur obtained in a pure state annually, is about 800,000 tons, and about one half of this comes from Sicily arid the U.S.A. A German wartime process for preparing sulphur was based upon the reaction that takes place between calcium sulphide and magnesium chloride when boiled together, the hydrogen sulphide equation The calcium sulphide primarily employed and converted into sulphate is reconverted into sulphide by heating it together with coal in a revolving furnace at i,ioo degrees C. Sulphur affords one of the most interesting examples of substances which can assume a number of varying or socalled allotropic forms. In its ordinary form, it is a yellow crystalline body uf octahedral formation, but by melting it under certain conditions it can be obtained in the form of prismatic needles of transparent character which melt at 119 degrees C. and upon exposure to the air, gradually lose their transparency, crumble up, and assume once more the form of octaliedra. The influence of heat upon sulphur is remarkable. The ordinary rhombic form melts at about 1128 degrees C. to a yellow, limpid liquid; but if the temperature be allowed to rise to 230 degrees C., it becomes quite viscid and darkens very much in colour. If the heat be still further raised, it again becomes more fluid, but not so fluid as when first melted. If, when in the viscous state, it be allowed to cool suddenly, it solidifies into a soft mass which can be drawn out into elastic threads having a sp. gr. of 196, whereas the natural crystals of sulphur have a sp. gr. of 207. This form can be again transformed into the original by heating it to ioo degrees C., when it suddenly returns to the brittle condition with an evolution of heat. This change also takes place if it is kept for a short time. When sulphur is distilled in small quantities and the vapour allowed to condense in a vessel not artificially cooled, it takes the form of red oily drops which remain fluid for some hours, but afterwards pass into the solid condition. These changes appear to be due to varied molecular. arrangements corresponding to environment. Between 1170 and 157 degrees C. the sulphur molecule appears to be S6 and between 180 degrees and 445 degrees C. S18. It may be sublimedthat is to say, it can be volatilized or made to assume the form of vapour, which can then be condensed into the solid state. Sulphur is soluble in carbon disulphide, and can be obtained in crystalline form therefrom. It is marketed in the forms of crystals, "roll," "precipitated," and "sublimed." At one tune, sulphur was largely used in the making of matches, but this has been superseded by other methods. It is used in the manufacture of gunpowder and sulphuric acid, also in vulcanizing processes, in pharmacy in compounding socalled milk of sulphur and other medicaments, and for fumigating beer casks and infected rooms. Sulphur burns in the air with a blue flame and gives rise to the production of sulphur dioxide, a gas of pungent, irritating nature which may be condensed and liquefied, or a solution of it n water can be prepared. In all three forms it is used for disinfecting purposes; also for bleaching straw, silk, wool, and sponge.

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Definition of  SULPHONATION