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SATUREIA

(Savory. Nat. Ord. Labiatse). The two species of this genus of hardy plants most usually grown are S. hortensis, theSummer Savory, and S. montana, the Winter Savory. (See Savory in our article on Potherbs.)

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SCORODONIA

Now included in the genus Teucrium.

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SEMPERVIVUM

(Houseleek. Nat. Ord. Crassulacefe). This constitutes a most interesting genus of succulent plants, distinguished for their resistance to drought. Their thick, fleshy leaves are arranged in symmetrical rosettes, which are frequently of exquisite form and colouring. The greater number of those named are hardy, but in wet districts a few, especially those which have a charming cobweb-like tomentum on the rosettes, e.g., S. arachnoideum, require protection by glass from excessive moisture in winter. If these are planted in a wall in an almost vertical position, this protection will be unnecessary, except in a few very wet parts of the country. The Houseleeks look well in chinks between dark rocks, but often harmonise perfectly with limestone. They flower more freely if there is lime in the soil, but this is not an entire gain, as the rosette which flowers dies afterwards. Some propagate themselves rapidly by means of little offsets, and are easily increased by taking off the side rosettes, which root quickly in light soil. They can also be raised from spring-sown seeds. The uses of Sempervivums in gardens are many and varied. Some have been employed with much skill in carpet bedding, their symmetrical form, neat habit, and simple formality lending themselves to the effects desired. They prefer a sunny situation and light soil. Some plant them with a proportion of decomposed manure in the soil, but others object to this as attracting birds in search of worms, and inducing them to tear up the rosettes. 5. Tectorum is the common Houseleek frequently seen on roofs. The nomenclature of the genus is in a chaotic condition, but the names which follow are founded on those of the best authorities. On account of the vast number in commerce, only a selection of the best and most distinct can be given. Selection of Sorts. Sempervivum arachnoideum. The Cobweb Houseleek, with red flowers in June. Height, 4 ins. S. a. barbulatum has rose flowers. Six other good varieties bearing red flowers are doellianum, Fauconetti, Hausmanni, Laggeri, piliferum, and webbianum. Height, 4-8 ins. 5. arboreum. A tender sort, with greenish-yellow flowers in July. Height, 6-9 ins. S. a. atropurpureum has purple foliage, and S. a. variegatum has foliage marbled cream. 5. arenarium. Pale yellow flowers in June. Height, 6-9 ins. S. arvernense. Pink flowers in July. Height, 6-8 ins. 5. atlaniicum.Pale red flowers in July. Height, i ft. S. Boisseri.Red flowers in July. Height, 9 ins. 5. boutignyanum.Rose flowers in July. Height, 8 ins. S. Braunii.Yellow flowers in July. Height, 6 ins. S. calcareum (Syn. S. californicum). Pale red flowers in July. Height, 10-12 ins. 5. canariense.This is a greenhouse sort, with white flowers in June. Height, i ft. 5. fimbriatum.Red flowers in July. Height, 6-9 ins. 5. flagelliforme.Red flowers in June. Height, 4 ins. S. Funckii.Red-purple flowers in July. Height, 6-9 ins. S. glaucum.Red flowers in July. Height, 6-12 ins. There are several varieties with little difference. S. globiferum.The Hen and Chickens, with pale yellow flowers in July. Height, 3 ins. 5. g. soboltferum is similar to the above. S. hirtum.Pale yellow flowers in June. Height, 6-9 ins. 960 S. metallicum.This has metallic foliage, and red flowers in July, Height, 8-10 ins. 5. mettenianum.Rosy – white flowers in July. Height, 4-8 ins. S. montanum.Red flowers in July. Height, 6 ins. S. tabulaeforme.A tender sort, with yellow flowers in June. Height, 12 ins. 5. t. variegatum has variegated fohage. 5. Tectorum. The Common Houseleek, with red flowers in July. Height, 9-12 ins. The best varieties of this are Lamottei, Reginae-Ameliae, and Requieni. S. tnste.A sort with dark foliage and red flowers in July. Height, 6-9 ins.S. A.

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SHRUBS

It is obviously impossible to describe the thousands of species and varieties of shrubs now available to the gardener. The limited space at our command will prevent this, and, except for giving short articles on Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Rhododendrons, and a few others, we are contenting ourselves with giving the list below, which comprises all the best shrubs for the garden of the amateur. Unless definitely stated to the contrary, all the shrubs are hardy in the average climate of the British Isles. Evergreen species are marked E., and those which are tender or half-hardy are marked H.H.E., in the case of the evergreen, and H.H.D. for the tender or half-hardy deciduous kinds. Species not marked with any initials are deciduous. For full descriptions and further cultural details the reader must consult larger works, and he should read nurserymens catalogues for the numerous varieties in commerce. It may be said, however, that those named will generally thrive in ordinary garden soil, lightened if heavy by the addition of some leafsoil. The names given are those recognised at Kew, and synonyms are in most cases omitted, as they are in many instances very confused and too numerous. Climbers are not included in the list below, but they will be found dealt with in our article on Climbing and Trailing Plants. Subjects specially suitable for use as Foliage Plants will be found in our article on Foliage Plants for All Purposes. Editor.Select List of Garden Shrubs. ABELIA. A. chinensis.The Rock Abelia, with pink flowers in August and September. Height, 2-3 ft. A. floribunda (E.). Rosy purple flowers in March. Height, 3 ft. A. spathulata (H.H.E.). Pink flowers in April. Height, 2-3 ft. A. triflora (/f.H.E.).Yellow and pink flowers in September. Height, 6 ft. ABUTILON. See also separate article and article on Climbing AND Trailing Plants. A . viiifolium. Lilac flowers in June. Height, 10 ft. ADENOCARPUS. A. decorticans (H.H.E.).Yellow flowers in May. Height, 3 ft. jEGLE. Bengal Quince or Hardy Orange. M. sepiaria (

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SNOWDROP

(Galanthus. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacese).Everyoneknows the Snowdrop. Although autumn flowering varieties and large, early spring flowering varieties are now to be had, it is doubtful if any of them have the charm of the old Galanthus nivalis in its single blessedness. No one seems to want the autumn kinds. They are out of place then, except from a collectors point of view. Those who”go in”for them have found a great many beautiful forms, but their beauties require close observation to be seen, and for practical garden purposes may be ignored. Culture.Any good garden soil suits Snowdrops. They do well in grass which is not too rank, and are ideal for clothing the ground in thin woodlands. They are too soon over when grown in pots, unless grown all the time in a cold frame, and even then they are often disappointing. Snowdrops dislike being out of the ground for a long time, hence early planting,before the end of September at the latest, is a sine qua non in their culture. What to Grow. Galanthus Elwesii.This. is generally larger than our old Galanthus nivalis. Its flowers are white, with inner segmentsmarked with rich green. They are borne in February, on plants 6-9 ins. high. G. Ikariae. This has glossy foliage, and white globular flowers in March. Its height is 6-9 ins. G. Imperati.This has large white flowers J with inner segments marked green. It blooms in March, and grows 9 ins. high. Its variety Atkinsoni is very useful. G. nivalis.This is the Common Snowdrop, or old English Snowdrop, with its charming white flowers. It has a tendency to become double in good soil. Height, 6 ins. G. nivalis flore plena.The double form of the above. G. plicatus.This, the Crimean Snowdrop or Plaited Snowdrop, has broad, plicate foliage, white flowers, and is taller than the general run of Snowdrops. Height, 9-12 ins. J. J.&E.T.E.Culture. Any good garden soil suits Snowdrops. They do well in grass which is not too rank, and are ideal for clothing the ground in thin woodlands. They are too soon over when grown in pots, unless grown all the time in a cold frame, and even then they are often disappointing. Snowdrops dislike being out of the ground for a long time, hence early planting,before the end of September at the latest, is a sine qua non in their culture.What to Grow. Galanthus Elwesii.This. is generally larger than our old Galanthus nivalis. Its flowers are white, with inner segments marked with rich green. They are borne in February, on plants 6-9 ins. high. G. Ikariae. This has glossy foliage, and white globular flowers in March. Its height is 6-9 ins. G. Imperati.This has large white flowers J with inner segments marked green. It blooms in March, and grows 9 ins. high. Its variety Atkinsoni is very useful. G. nivalis.This is the Common Snowdrop, or old English Snowdrop, with its charming white flowers. It has a tendency to become double in good soil. Height, 6 ins. G. nivalis flore plena.The double form of the above. G. plicatus.This, the Crimean Snowdrop or Plaited Snowdrop, has broad, plicate foliage, white flowers, and is taller than the general run of Snowdrops. Height, 9-12 ins. J. J.&E.T.E.

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SOIL STERILISATION

This important operation does not mean rendering the soil sterile ; the aim is to remove harmful vegetable and animal life from the soil so that the choicest plants may be successfully grown. Two different series of methods may be adopted to this end, first, fumigation of the soil by chemicals (already dealt with under Soil FuMiGATiNG)nd, secondly, physical methods employing heat or cold, which form the subject of the present notes.Baking. Where gardening is carried out on a large scale, soil is usually sterilised by being baked orroasted over pipes containing highpressure steam. Amateurs cannot do this, so it is necessary to fall back on the old but efficient method of roasting over an open fire. To do this a sheet of iron is laid on bricks over a good red fire, and soil is spread thinly and loosely on it; the baking is finished when the soil is too hot to have the hand pressed on it, and a thick smoke (not steam) is a sign that the operation is going too far. Turf need not be broken up when treated in this way, but simply placed on the plate, grass side down. When the soil is being removed from the plate it should be thoroughly mixed, and allowed to stand at least a day before use.

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SPINACH

(Spinacia oleracea. Nat. Ord. Chenopodiacese). Among profitable crops requiring only a short time to attain useful size. Spinach is entitled to a foremost place. Culture.A good deep loam enriched with a liberal amount of manure ensures a continuous supply of fresh leaves over quite a long period ; but where the bed of soil is shallow, or of a light sandy nature, the sowings made for summer gathering often suffer considerably from drought, and for this reason, where such soil exists and spinach is highly valued, sowing on the little and often principle is recommended in preference to the two or three larger sowings usually found to be sufficient where the plants enjoy a deep and rich soil. Two varieties are in general cultivation, one having round, the other prickly seed, the produce from either sowing showing little if any difference when cooked. The Prickly variety is claimed to be the most hardy, and for this reason is usually recommended for autumn sowing; but in light soils we have found the Round to be equally dependable for winter and summer use. A small sowing may be made in a warm border early in March, selecting a spot where the crop will be sheltered from cold winds, these retarding growth equally as much as frost. Sow in drills about 12- 15 ins. apart, and not less than 2 ins. deep. On good soil each plant should have a clear space of 1 ft. in the row, but where the soil is poor and little manure added 8 ins. will be ample. The earliest sowings often run to seed quite early in the season, particularly if a dry period follows germination. This risk will be considerably minimised if the hoe is used frequently between the rows. Picking may commence as soon as the leaves are the size of a crownpiece, care being taken to do it without disturbing the roots, always confining attention to one row at a time. If this is done there will be no waste of leaves, but a constant supply always coming on.F. R. C.

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STOVE PLANTS

These require great heat and a constant tropical atmosphere. Houses have to be specially built for them, and large quantities of water have to be thrown about daily to keep the air for ever saturated with moisture. Our readers will thus see that the culture of stove plants is by no means simple, easy, or inexpensive. Indeed culture of these numerous beautiful subjects is getting less on account of the high cost of maintaining the houses, and the constant care that has to be bestowed on the plants before any reasonable success is obtained. As our work is a popular work, we have, after careful consideration, decided to exclude the ordinary run of stove plants from its pages, devoting the space they would occupy and much more, to hardy herbaceous plants which are ten times as beautiful and twenty times as useful. The chief greenhouse plants and a few stove orchids are mentioned, but these are of comparatively easy culture even for beginners.E.

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SWEET WILLIAM

(Dianthus barbatus. Nat. Ord. Caryophyllacese). Though strictly perennial, the Sweet William gives the best results when sown in a cold frame, or outdoors in May or June, transplanted into a nursery bed and put into the flowering position in autumn. 1 At Kew A loysia citnodora is referred to Lippia citriodora.Editor. Choice varieties may be propagated by layering, cuttings, or division of the roots. When over, the old plants may be removed to a nursery bed, and their places in the beds taken by China Asters or earlyflowering Chrysanthemums, The best varieties include : Dianthus barbatus Auricula-eyed. White, zoned with dark colours, white eye, flowering June to July. Height, ij ft. D. b. Harlequin.Several colours on the same truss. A sort blooming from June to July. Height, i ft. D. b. magnificus.A useful double crimson sort, flowering in June and July. Height, i ft. D. b. Suttons Pheasants Eye. Rich crimson, with white eye, flowering June to July. Height, i|- ft. D. b. Suttons Pink Beauty. Salmon-pink, flowering June to July. Height, ij ft. D. b. Suttons Scarlet. Bright scarlet, flowering June to July. Height, ij ft.J. F. New Variety. Scarlet Beauty.This bears dense heads of bright scarlet flowers having a lighter coloured eye.

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