To make cool. There are processes for refrigerating perishable and other articles based upon the cooling which is produced by causing volatile liquids like strong ammonia and liquefied carbon dioxide to assume the vaporous state. This change of state involves the consumption or absorption, so to speak, of heat, and is used for cooling chambers in which foods, etc., are kept. A kilogram of liquid ammonia evaporated at io degrees C. absorbs 3223 calories. With regard to the preservation of meat and fish, it has been shown that, by sufficiently rapid cooling to a temperature that corresponds to the eutectic of a saline solution, the separation of frozen water as a visible phase is avoided, so that upon thawing, the system returns to its original state. Processes of refrigeration are often used in chemical investigations and operations.
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