Groups of atoms which behave in replacement value, as atoms in a number of combinationsfor example, the group CH2 in the homologous “paraffin” series of hydrocarbons the group HO in the alcohols the group C3IIS in fats the group N 02 in nitric acid and many explosives: and the group S02 in sulphuric acid. These radicals may be mono, di, or trivalent, etc.that is to say, capable of replacing one, two, or three monovalent atonic. In the case of nitric acid, the constitutional formula is therefore expressed as water in which an atom of hydrogen is replaced by N03viz., H,N02,0; that of ethyl alcohol as C2H6HO and podium ethoxide as C2H5NaO.
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