Gardeners will not find it possible to do this satisfactorily as special cooled chambers are required. Retarded bulbs, corms, or crowns are offered so cheaply, however, that it is certainly not worth while to attempt to carry out the work at home.
These differ from rock gardens in size and character. Rock gardens are usually large, rockeries small ; and, again, rock gardens when properly made always look natural and artistic, while rockeries, however well made they may be, always look quite unnatural and inartistic. There is usually a definite raison detre for a rockery, such as a bank to be supported or an ugly empty corner to be filled, but there is nothing of thekind, or should not be, in the case of a rock garden. As there is this definite purpose of rockeries, some of the rules of rock garden making may be broken. Stones may be perched end upwards so long as they hold up earth, and no regard need be paid to the bedding marks on the stones. As a rule the stronger-growing rock garden subjects, such as Ajuga, Alyssum, Arabis, Aubrietia, Cerastium, Lithospermum, etc., are the most suitable for rockeries, though they require severely cutting back after flowering to keep them within bounds.
It is safe to say that no plant is capable of more varied application for the purposes of the gardener than is the Rose. It is merely necessary to glance at the following paragraphs to realise this, and to understand how rightly the Rose is called The Queen of Flowers. The following abbreviations are used to denote the different classes : C. China ; H.B. Hybrid Bourbon ; ff.P- Hybrid Perpetual; H.T. Hybrid Tea; N. Noisette; PPernetianas or Austrian Hybrids ; T. Tea ; and W. Wichuraianas. Roses for Arbours, Arches, and Pergolas.For this purpose the Wichuraiana Roses are greatly favoured, as they give, when in bloom, a glorious mass of colour (for colours see Hybrid Wichuraianas in the article Rose Classes) ; but they have the drawback of flowering once only during the season. They do not bloom all at the same time, however, and by planting early, mid-season, and late varieties, a much longer- period of blooming can be assuredfrom June to late August, or even into September. The following list gives a guide to the approximate period of flowering, the mid-season sorts coming on as the earlier ones are getting past their best, and the late varieties overlapping those : Early-Flowering.Alberic Barbier, Auguste Barbier, Aviateur Bleriot, Climbing American Beauty, Eliza Robichon, Franfois Guillot,Gardenia, Gerbe Rose, Jersey Beauty, Joseph Billard, Paul Transon, Rene Andre, Robert Craig, Ruby Queen, Shower of Gold. Mid-Season. Anna Rubsamen, Debutante, Edntond Proust, Franfois Juranville, Jean Guichard, Joseph Liger, Leontine Gervais, Mandas Triumph, Milky Way, Rubra, Schneeball, Valentine Beaulieu. Late-F l o w e r I n g. Christian Curie, Dorothy Perkins, Excelsa, Hiawatha, Lady Gay, Lady Godiva, Minnehaha, Mrs Littleton Dewhurst, Paul Ploton, Sweetheart, The Farquhar, White Dorothy, Wichuraiana. The Rambler Roses (multiflora or Climbing Polyantha section), as well as the Ayrshire Roses (for both of which see the article on Rose Classes), are likewise good for this purpose, but with them, too, there is only a comparatively brief season. There is, however, a good selection of Roses for Arches, etc., that flower more or less freely throughout the season, principally in the Hybrid Tea, Noisette, and Tea Sections. Among the best of these are the following : Alister Stella Gray (N.).Pale yellow flowers with orange centre. Ards Rover (H.P.).Dark crimson flowers. Bouquet dOr (Dijon T.).Yellow and buff flowers. Carmine Pillar (H.T.).Rosycarmine, single flowers. Climbing Aimee Vibert (N.). White flowers. Climbing Caroline Testout (H.T.). Silvery-pink flowers. Climbing Mrs W. J. Grant (H.T.). Bright rosy-pink flowers. Climbing Richmond (H.T.).Rich scarlet flowers. Gloire de Dijon (T.).Buff flowers with orange centre. Longworth Rambler (H.T.).Light crimson, semi-double flowers. 898 Madame Alfred Carriere (N.). White flowers. Reine Marie Antoinette (H.T.). Cherry-red flowers. Reine Olga de Wurtemberg (H.T.). Rosy-crimson flowers. Reve dOr (N.). Buff-yellow flowers. William Allen Richardson (N.). Orange-yellow flowers. Roses for Bedding.The multiplicity of Roses now in commerce gives almost illimitable scope for the exercise of individual choice, so that the following lists are put forward rather as suggestions, and because the varieties named have been proved suitable for the purpose. They are, in the majority of cases, good for autumn flowering. It should be remembered that Roses vary in average height, and that in bedding it is advisable to put the taller-growing varieties in positions where they will not hide the others. The tall varieties are here put in a separate list. For the front of the bed the dwarf Polyanthas are well adapted, and a list of these will be found in the article on Rose Classes. Dwarf to Medium Height. Alexander Hill Gray. (T.).Deep lemon and yellow flowers. Arthur R.Goodwin (P.).Copperyorange flowers. Augustine Guinoisseau (H.T.). White, tinted blush flowers. Betty (H.T.). Coppery -rose flowers, shaded with yellow. Brilliant (H.T.).Intense scarlet flowers. British Queen (H.T.).Creamywhite flowers. CaptainHaywardiH.P.).Scarletcrimson flowers. Caroline Testout (H.T.).Silverypink flowers. Charles de Lapisse (H.T.).Blush flowers. Chateau de Clos Veugeot (H.T.). Dark crimson flowers.
This is a genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, most of which are too coarse for use in the herbaceous or mixed borders, but which come in handy as giant subjects for the wild garden. R. officinale is the well-known Medicinal Rhubarb. It and R. colUnianum are good subjects for water gardens (see article on Water Garden: Plants for the). R. Rhaponticum is the even better known Garden Rhubarb, famed as a subject for summer tarts (see article on Rhubarb). R. acuminatum, with its putple flowers in July, and R. Emodi, with its white June opening flowers, are useful for the wild garden, and the same rema.rk applies to R. macropterum, R. nobile, R. palmatum, R. Ribes, and R, ruosum, which bear greenish-whiteflowers in the summer, though the variety tanghuticum of R. palmatum is an ornamental border species. All the above are grown more for their foliage than for their flowers, and range in height from 2 ft. to over 4 yds.
(Hesperis. Dames Violet. Nat. Ord. Cruciferae). This is a plant highly prized by lovers of the more old-fashioned flowers, and also by modern gardeners who delight in perfumed flowers. Most of the species have a very sweet scent, emanating more especially at night, and a lengthy blooming period. The annual species are omitted as they are ha,rdly worth growing, but species which are biennial will be found described elsewhere in this work, in our notes on Night-Scented Stock. Thi hardy perennials, which concern us in the present article, are of the easiest cultivation, thriving in ordinary light soil of good quality in a sunny or very lightly shaded site. They are grand for the perennial, herbaceous, or mixed borders and may be used effectively at the back of rock borders to surprise new-comers with scent, which is as a rule scarce in that portion of the garden. Some, especially H. matronalis, are splendid flowers for cutting. Propagation may be effected by seeds sown in the usual way in the spring or summer, but the best way is to divide the roots, not in October, November, or March as is 880 usually done (though at times this is quite satisfactory), but to split them up in July and August, keeping them for a few months in the reserve garden after doing this if possible. In the case of the double sorts, however, it is more satisfactory to insert cuttings in light soil about midsummer. Planting may be successfully done, as for all other hardy perennials, in the autumn or spring. What to Grow.We recommend the following, but only H. matronalis and H. violacea are in the Kew Hand-list of Herbaceous Plants : Hesperis aprica.This is a pretty dwarf purplish May blooming sort only 6 ins. high. H. elata.Syn. H. matronalis, which see. H. excelsa.This is a delightful early blooming white sort flowering in May, and averaging 1-2 ft. high. H. matronalis (Sjoi. H. elata). This is quite the most popular and the best species of all. Nurserymen offer it in various colours, such as purple, pink, red, red-purple, and double white and red, but the type is a single purple. The best varieties include alba (single white) ; alba plena (double white) ; lilacina plena (pale double purple) ; nana alba plena (dwarf double white) ; and purpurea plena (dwarf double purple). The double forms are the most important and are grand for cutting. The Old Scotch Rocket is better than any of the above, but is now very rare. The above varieties and the type bloom freely from early June to late July, and grow about I yd. in height. H. violacea.This bears violet or blue-purple flowers in May and June, on plants about ij ft. high.
As a general rule rotation, such as should be practised in the vegetable or kitchen garden, is quite impossible among the flowers. Herbaceous borders are made and planted, and have to last for years, and even when lifting and replanting is done very often it is necessary that the same plants should occupy the same positions. And does it matter ? No, not much, perhaps comparatively little, but then we overrule the need for rotation by heavy manuring from time to time and by frequent topdressings and feeding. It does happen at times, however, that a plant ceases to do well in any particular position, and here comes in the need for a little rotational work. Study the plant first. Has it a leguminous root, namely, a root with little nitrogen-containing nodules on it ? If so, plant it in a site not previously occupied by any similar or leguminous plant. Has it a long tap-root ? If so, plant it in ground previously occupied by a surface and fibrous-rooted flower, or vice versa. As a general rule,where sickness of this kind is noticed, plants of any one natural order should not be planted in ground immediately occupied previously by plants of the same order ; but as the natural orders (which are always given in the plant articles in this work) contain plants of very varying characteristics, this rule must not be made”a law of the Medes and Persians which altereth not.”Common sense and judgment should be used in this, as in every other operation in gardening. In the case of annuals and summer bedding plants rotation is quite easy, and, though not essential, is exceedingly advisable, more especially if manure and liquid food have to be economically used. Plants of different natural orders, and plants with different characteristics take different food materials from the soil, thus subjects making much foliage will rob the ground of most of its nitrogen ; subjects flowering quickly which are soon over will rob their sites of most of the phosphates they contain ; the subjects blooming for a very long period, and producing flowers of high quality and in large quantity will take out of the soil a good portion of the potash it contains. Very often an annual, rooting near the surface of the soil, will decline in flower production year by year, until it is a total failure, whereas if one of the same natural order, but with long tap-roots, is sown, it will be a crowning success for several years. In other words, the surface soil may be totally devoid of the food required by that plant, and yet the under-soil be full to overflowing with it. The above will serve to show that while no definite hard-and-fast rules for flower garden rotation can be laid down, the general principles of rotation will, if applied to the flower garden as well as the vegetable 908 plot, give increased returns and far more successful results. Sickness of plants is to a large extent avoidable in the writers opinion, if plants, their families, and requirements are studied from the point of view of rotation.E.