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QUASSIA

The leaves of this are used, like those of many other crops, instead of Spinach in districts where the latter will not grow. Quinoa may be cultivated in the same manner as Orache, or Mountain Spinach, which see.

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QUINCES

The quality of these popular roots depends very much on the growth of the plant. If the growth is slow then the roots will be hot, tough, and uneatable ; it is the quicklygrown radishes which are so much enjoyed. Culture.For very early supplies, sow seed on a mild hotbed in January. Sowings may be made in a warm border out of doors about the middle of February, other sowings being made every fortnight until August ; but owing to the abundance of salads from July onwards, it is the earlier roots that are most highly valued. Whether radishes be sown in frames or outside, a rich bed should always be provided ; the surface soil should be free from stones, and broken down very finely before sowing the seeds. Sow very thinly. From April until August seed should be set in cool, damp situations, or where water can easily be given during dry weather. Cover the seed very lightly, protecting from birds, which in some districts play havoc with the early batches. Plants growing in frames must not be coddled, though none but tepid water should be used in watering. After thinning out, give a little air on all favourable occasions. The earliest outdoor sowings should have the protection of a few bushy sticks, or a light covering of hay or straw placed over them ; this covering must not be so dense as to keep light and air from reaching the plants. Fish netting is very useful for covering beds, as this allows the addition of fuller light, protection being given should the weather turn unexpectedly cold after germination. Commence to use the roots as soon as these attain the size of a hazel nut, always pulling from that part of the bed which is most crowded. Varieties .For Summer Use. French Breakfast, Icicle, Long Scarlet, Long White, Turnip Radish, and Woods Frame. For Winter Use.Sow in August any of the following:Black Spanish Long, Black Spanish Round, and China Rose Winter.F. R. C.

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QUINCUNX PLANTING

We wonder why these are so common in all gardens which have been made a few years. We can never see anything beautiful about beds raised or mounded up 12- 18 ins. or more above the lawn level, and such beds are extremely difficult to dig, plant, or keep gay. The idea that bedding plants look best when planted on raised mounds is a fallacy. We do not object to beds being raised a few inches ; this is at times necessary to show off plants when only one species is used. If the”rising mound”effect is wanted, it can be obtained by other means than by piling on soil ; taller varieties of the same genus can, for instance, be planted, or again plants of another, though similar, genus could be set. Let us hope that high raised beds will die out, for they mean terrible waste of time and labour. Modern gardeners can do better than puttheir energies into raised beds ; they can spend their time evolving colour schemes the charm of which is unrivalled. In gardens where there are many raised beds, it would be a step in the right direction to remove the mound of soil, and deepen the soil below. A bit of extra soil is always useful to gardeners, especially when it is rich soil produced by frequent manuring, as is the case when bedding plants are grown. Then the raised effect can be obtained by planting the dwarfer subjects round the margin with taller specimens in the centre. Good, tall plants are Antirrhinum majus, Lobelia cardinalis, Schizanthus Wisetonensis, Zinnia Tall Double, etc.E.

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QUINOA

This genus consists of two species which require a shady situation, and succeed best when planted in rocky crevices or joints of stone walls. Both are propagated by means of offsets, or by seeds sown in gentle heat in spring. Ramondia pyrenaica.This bears rosettes of green wrinkled leaves, lying flat against the wall. Flowers violet-purple, with orange centres. Site, shade. Soil moist, gritty peat and loam. Flowering Period, May to August. Height, 2 ins. R. serbica.The rosettes of smaller leaves of this sort are covered with soft brown hair. Flowers pale blue or mauve. Site, shade. Soil gritty peat. Flowering Period, May to July. Height, 3 ins. R. serbica Naihaliae. A form from the Carpathians, with more deeply coloured flowers and brightcoloured anthers,New Varieties. Ramondia pyrenaica pallida. This bears soft mauve flowers, three to four on a stem. R. serbica Naihaliae alba.This has pure white flowers,with an orange ring at their base.

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QUAKING GRASS

If the garden has a pond, Quinces will flourish on the banks, where the roots can enter the water. The blossoms are very elegant ; the fruits should always be left on the tree into November to perfect growth. They are then useful for jelly or marmalade as well as for flavouring apple tarts. The Pear-shaped is the most generally useful ; but the Portugal is larger and less astringent. It helps fertility if the boughs and spray branches are thinned occasionally. The trees succeed in any damp soil, and require no care beyond that usually given to hardy fruit. In a warm season. Quinces may ripen before November. They are fit to gather when deep yellow.

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QUAMOCLIT

This is a style of planting in which each plant or tree is opposite a space between two plants or trees in the rows immediately above and below it. The diagram below explains this mode of planting. Diagram to show Quincunx Planting. Trees planted as above may or may not be equal distances apart each way, according to arrangement.

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