A butter substitute, manufactured on a large scale, consisting of fatty acids or oils from various sources, compounded with skiin milk sterilized by heating to 82 degrees C., and sometimes inoculated with the butyric ferment in order to give the blended mixture a butterlke odour. Cottonseed, palm, cocoanut, and arachis oils are largely used, and in some cases animal fats, such as “premier jus” and lard, are admxed with the vegetable oils, so proportioned as to give a meltingpoint of about 20 degrees C. Stearine, being more solid at the ordinary atmospheric temperature, is used when necessary to counteract the more liquid oils and to adjust the desired consistency. The tats produced by the hydrogenation process from whale, cottonseed, and other oils are now extensively used to replace ihe animal fats previously employed in making the best qualities. The process of making is somewhat as follows: Thy milk, after cooling to io degrees C., is churned with the melted mixture of fats and oils at a temperature of 251 to 35 degrees C. until thoroughly emulsified, then cooled, and after maturing, to allow the butyric ferment to do its work, kneaded to expel the excess of water over 16 per cent., which is the legal limit. It is essential that the oils should be run slowly into the milk in the churn, to produce a finegrained permanent emulsion of the oilin water type, as if the reverse method be used, au emulsion of the waterinoil type results, and is not so satisfactory. The English production of margarine in 1915 was estimated at 240,000 tons.
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