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KEROSINE

A mineral illuminant oil distilled from the natural petroleum deposits in America, free of gasoline, naphtha, and heavy oils. Sp. gr. about 1 440 and boilingpoint about 230 degrees to 240 degrees C.

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KAPOK

The Malay name given to the cottonlike down produced in the seedpods of the tree of that name and extensively used in making lifesaving jackets, etc. The dried seeds yield about 245 per cent, of oil.

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KIMMERIDGE CLAY or SHALE

A deposit found under the sands beneath the Portland stone of Dorsetshire and elsewhere, abounding in animal and vegetable matters. It. is used to some extent as fuel and yields on distillation petroleumlike products.

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KNOPPERN

A tannin material in the form of excrescences produced by insects upon the immature acorns or flower cups of certain species of oak principally Quercus cerris of the Slavonic plainsand known as “sisarca” and “gubacs.”

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KETONES

A class of organic bodies, produced by the oxidation of the secondary alcohols. They are nearly related to the aldehydes, from which they may be considered as derived by the displacement of H in the CO 11 group by the alcohol radicals. Thus common ethyl aldehyde becomes CH3COthe formula of dimethyl ketone, or, as it is commonly called, acetone which is the lowest member oi the series. Again, isopropyl alcohol by oxidation, yields acetone by the withdrawal of two hydrogen atoms C3H80 or CH3CIICH3 + 0 = CHjCH, + HaO.

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KAURIE GUM

A product of the kaurie pine of New Zealand. There is a large deposit ot kaurie gum peat in the soil of the buried kauri forest in New Zealand, and a considerable industry is carried on in the extraction of the gum ard associated oils. A ton of the peat yields about 10 per cent, of gum and gives by distillation about 64J gallons of oil, from which motor spirit, a solvent oil, a turpentine substitute, and paint and varnish oils are extracted. The sp. gr. of kaurie is ro5 and the meltingpoint about from 182 degrees to 2320 C.; it is used in varnishmaking and the preparation of dental compounds.

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KIESELGUHR

A soft, w hite, earthy deposit of hydrated silica, being the siliceous skeletons of minute aquatic plants knoftn as diatoms, found in Germany, the United States, and many other parts of the world. It is generally associated with earthy impurities, and contains from 65 to 87 per cent. Si02, 23 to 11*7 per cent. A1203, up to 3 per cent. Fe2<3, small proportions of the oxides of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and from 5to 14 per cent, water. It id of great absorbent capacity, capable of taking up about four times its own weight of water and having a sp. gr. of about 033. It is largely used as an absorbent for carrying liquid petroleum, in the manufacture of dynamite, as a filtering material, iii ceramics, as an abrasive, cleanser, and polishing agent, and i>i compounding mixtures for boiler coverings, etc.

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KEIRP

The ashes of burnt seaweeds, containing sodium carbonate, sulphate, and sulphide, together with the chlorides. of potassium and sodium, and insoluble substances comprising calcium carbonate, silica, and alumina. Kelp was at one time used for the extraction of both alkali and iodine, the latter being recovered from the motherliquor remaining after the crystallization of the salts from the extracted ashes. Two published analyses give the percentic parts as follows: Potassium sulphate…… Soi9o Soda as carbonate and sulphide 8555 Potassium and sodium chlorides 3653y5 The pressed coke is saturated successively with hot hydrochloric acid and water, and is afterwards used as a decolourizing agent. After removal of the sulphates from the brine liquor, it is heated in a vacuum pan to a certain point of concentration and then transferred to a vacuum crystallizer, in which the potassium chloride deposits. Upon further concentration the sodium chloride separates, whilst from the motherliquor iodine is obtained. In another process, the kelp is fed into one end of a rotary kiln, in which t encounters a flame of burning oil from the other end, thus producing a charcoallike mass which is subsequently quenched, ground and leached, or it may be burned to a grey loose ash with a potassium content equal to about 35 per cent. I20. About 8 lbs. iodine can be extracted from a ton of Scotch kelp.

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KINETIC ENERGY

That possessed by a body in virtue of its motion.

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KOLA NUTS

From the seeds of Cola acuminata, containing caffeine.

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