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ITALIAN

Of or pertaining to Italy. I. Fever. Synonym of Influenza, and also of Mediterranean Fever. I. Leprosy. See Pellagra. I. Method. See Tagliacotian Method.

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INCREASED PRODUCTION ON ALLOTMENTS

The above subject has for many years been gradually asserting its importance, but the sudden emergency created by the Great War served to place it in the front rank. Some hints were undoubtedly gained from the booming of”French Gardening”a few years ago, but that system has made little headway in England on account of the outlay required. It was rather a fuller development of English Gardening that was called for, and this has in many cases been brought about.; Whilst allotmentscould be fairly looked upon as an old institution in many parts of the country, there was abundant evidence that a full use of them was not made. In proof of this, attention need only be called to the general bareness of many plots from September until spring. This state of affairs was slowly improved during the thirty years before 1914, but under recent conditions a more rapid improvement has been noticeable. Many new allotment holders, especially in our towns, have been quick to learn lessons bearing on increased production. This in turn has served to stimulate workers in the country, and there is a great future before allamateur food growers so long as work is not relaxed but further effort made. Plots can produce double or treble what they are doing, provided the right line is taken. How to Obtain It. What we have just said sounds quite impossible, but we shall now point out how to go to work. In the first place, work has often been hindered by a water-logged soil. Under such conditions a full yield of produce is quite impossible.”Cold”and”late”are the expressive words applied to these plots. Deep digging is often of some assistance in view of this difficulty. Open trenches are also of great value, but in bad cases nothing but drain pipes will be satisfactory. Next undoubtedly comes the value of good spade work, carried out in dry weather, and October being the commencement of the gardening year, digging started then serves to expose a larger surface to air and frost. This is invaluable, in view of seed-sowing in early spring. The depth of digging naturally depends partly on the workers available time, but a double depth is to be strongly recommended, since no one can expect to increase his production unless he digs well and deeply. The necessity of an occasional supply of lime must next be noted on account of the varied purposes it serves. On sour soil it has been known in the same season to treble the yield of crops, and on all soils, save those resting on chalk or limestone, it will help the crops greatly, and thus make them give greater return than they otherwise would. If the greatest possible yield is to be obtained from the land, full use must be made both of artificial fertiUsers and natural animal manures. Very often a timely application of the former will increase the yield by one-thirdj and no one can expect reasonably good results unless he buries some dung in his land from year to year. Other important ways of increasing production are found by the use of Catch Crops, Double Cropping, Rotational Cropping,and Successional Cropping. For particulars of these other articles must be consulted. Lastly, every gardener who desires to get more from his plot should study good gardening from the best authorities available, neglecting neither the scientific nor the practical aspect.C. W.

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INDIAN PINKS AND JAPAN PINKS (Dianthus chinensis Nat Ord Caryophyllaceae)

The genus Dianthus contains some two hundred species, more or less, of perennials or sub-shrubby plants, and a number of species are treated in the article on Dianthus. D. chinensis is best sown as an annual in heat, or in a cold frame during March, and planted out in May, when it will bloom from July till frost occurs. As a biennial it may be sown in June or July, and thinned to bloom the following year. The small flowered sort (D. chinensis) is known as the Chinese or Indian Pink, though it does not come from India ; and the large flowered and fringed strains (D. c. Heddewigii) as the Japan Pink. The flowers are exceedingly variable in colour from white to carmine and crimson, often beautifully marked and laced, and single or double. What to Grow. Dianthus chinensis can be had in many colours both single and double. It flowers freely from July to October, and averages 9-12 ins. in height. D. chinensis Heddewigii can also be had in many brilliant colours both double and single. It blooms freely from July to October, and averages 6-15 ins. in height. Some of the best varieties of this include Atkinsoni, a single, blood-red garden hybrid blooming from July to August ; Brilliant Fringed, a single-flowered strain with many intense colours, coming in from July to October ; Crimson Bells, also single, and blood crimson, coming in about the same time ; Diadem, a true double, many-coloured sort blooming from July to October ; Salmon Queen, a single sort producing salmon-pink fringed flowers from July to October ; Scarlet Queen, also single, but bearing vivid scarlet flowers from July to October ; Suttons Superb, a splendid single sort available in many colours, and blooming about the same time as the above ; The Bride, a single white sort, the flowers of which are zoned crimson or purple, and which are 1 Often offered by the trade as Dianthus Heddewigii.-E-dito.produced freely all the summer ; The Mikado, a fine single or semidouble sortj producing finely fringed flowers from July to October and Vesuvius, a further sort available in many glorious colours from scarlet to orange, the flowers of which are finely fringed, and produced freely all the summer and well into the autumn.J. F.

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INDIAN SHOT

A popular name for the Canna.

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INORGANIC MATTER

Insects as a group are looked upon by gardeners as enemies and pests, and manyof the families most abundantly represented in gardens justify by their habits this bad opinion. Some of the common insects of the garden are however, distinctly beneficial, and it is desirable that these should be recognised as friends so that, as far as possible, they may be accorded protection and encouragement. There can be no doubt that many members of the groupsbriefly described in this short article are of great service in destroying such injurious garden pests as caterpillars and green fly, to the extent of keeping their numbers from becoming permanently excessive. Predaceous insects cannot be expected, however, to exterminate the plant-eating creatures on which they feed ; for any approach to extermination the gardener must make vigorous use of insecticides and soil fumigants. Beetles. The order of the Coleoptera or Beetles, which includes many destructive insectschafers, weevils, and wireworms for examplecomprises several families, most of whose members are undoubtedly allies of the gardener. Of these the more important are the ground-beetles and the ladybirds. Ground-Beetles (Cambidcs)., These are beetles of active habit, with relatively long legs, that give them the power of running swiftly, and with the strong biting jaws or mandibles, sharp at the tip, enabling them to seize on the plant-eating insects which serve as their prey. In all beetles the fore-wings (elytra) are hard and firm, protecting the delicate, membranous hind-wings ; in most of the ground-beetles these latter are reduced so as to be useless for flight, and the excessively strong fore-wings form a sort of armoured deck over the insects hind-body. Thus beetles of this family present a very characteristic appearance as they run about in pursuit of creatures weaker than themselves. Some spend the day lurking under stones and go hunting by night, but others display their activities in the bright sunshine. The grubs or larvas of ground-beetles have elongate, well-armoured bodies with three pairs of fairly long legs, each foot bearing two claws. They also get their living by chasing and catching smaller insects. Many kinds of common ground – beetles live in gardens, so that they must devour a large number of planteating insects. It is well, however, to remember that the feeding habits of some members of this family are at times abnormal, and then they gnaw roots and stems instead of hunting for insect prey. IADYBiRDS (CoccinelUdce). The appearance of these stout, rotund little beetles with their conspicuous pattern of spotsred or yellow or blackis familiar to every gardener. They afford a great contrast to the ground – beetles, having short legs with only three segments on each foot, instead of the five usual in most beetles. These ladybirds are of the greatest service to the cultivator of the soil, as their food consists of”green fly”(aphis), scale-insects, and other destructive pests which suck sap from plants. The grubs of the ladybirds have the same feeding habits as the perfect insects ; they have groups of strong spines on their somewhat elongate, tapering bodies, which are often marked with black and yellow spots, and six legs of moderate length. Being found in numbers on plants infected with”green fly,”they are not infrequently mistakenly regarded by persons unfamiliar with their appearance as the cause of the damage. The more abundant the green fly, the greater, as a rule, will be the ladybird population on any plant, since a rich food supply is thus provided for the voracious ladybird grubs, which, under favourable conditions, develop so quickly that the whole series of transformations from egg to perfect beetle may be passed through in a month. Hover-Flies (Syrphi). Most members of the vast order of the Diftera, or Two-winged Flies, are looked upon as harmful insects. for many are blOod-suckers and disease-carriers in the perfect winged state, or feed on plant tissue or as parasites in animals during the larval stage. One conspicuous and beautiful group of these insects is, however, distinctly beneficial, as the larvaelike the ladybirds just described feed on”green fly.”These hover-flies are allies of the wellknown house-fly and bluebottle family ; they have shining and metallic bodies, often adorned with yellow bands so that they resemble small wasps. By the rapid beating of their delicate gauzy wings, they poise themselves in the air, where they may often be seen hovering over the flowering plants along a sunny garden border. In the perfect winged state they feed on the juices of flowers, and are of no great economic importance ; from the eggs which they lay on plants are hatched the curious larvae which must be reckoned among the most valuable of”garden friends.”Hover-flies belong to the large assembly of the Diptera which have the degraded larval form known as the maggotwithout legs, without a definite head, and usually tapering to the front end, where is situated the mouth armed with strong hooks for tearing up the food. The maggot is seen in its typical form in the soft, whitish offspring of a house-fly or bluebottle ; in the young of a hover-fly we see a maggot with a comparatively firm body, protected by rows of strongish tubercles, able to move actively about on the leaves of the plant which it inhabits, impaling aphides on its mouth hooks, and sucking out their juices. In this way the hover-fly larva helps to keep the numbers of”green fly”within bounds, but just because they are most numerous on plants badly affected, and their mode of hfe isnot familiar to many gardeners, they are often mistakenly destroyed instead of being recognised as friends and preserved. Ichneumon-Flies. Several families of Hymenoptera, known generally as Ichneumon-flieSj are perhaps the most important of all the gardeners insect friends. The Hymenoptera are characterised by two pairs of narrow membranous wings, jaws adapted both for biting and sucking, and an elaborately formed ovipositor, or egg-placer, in the female, modified into a sting in many families. The division of the order which includes the ichneumon-flies (as well as ants, bees, and wasps) is distinguished by a very slender waist in the middle of the body of the winged insect, and by the absence of legs in the grub or larva. Ichneumon – flies have the waist region of the body particularly long and narrow, and the females ovipositor comes off beneath the abdomen, not at its extreme tip as appears to be the case in wasps and bees. The female ichneumon lays her eggs in the bodies of other insectsusually in the caterpillars of moths and butterflies piercing the skin with her ovipositor ; the legless grubs hatched from their eggs devour the caterpillars internally, so that they perish before completing their transformations. In this way the numbers of destructive, leaf-eating caterpillars are kept within bounds. Many ichneumons are of large size, and of these one or a few grubs only feed in a single caterpillar, but there are multitudes of tiny ichneumons of whose grubs a large number may inhabit one caterpillar of fair size. A well-known example of this latter arrangement is seen in the caterpillars of the White Cabbage Butterflies (among the most destructive of all garden insects), which are attacked by a smallblack ichneumon Apanteles glomeratus. The female of this fly lays thirty or more eggs in a single caterpillar ; when the little ichneumon grubs have finished their destructive work they eat their way out and spin golden-coloured silk cocoons around the shrivelled body of their victim. The gardener who knows the history of these cocoons will, of course, be careful never to crush or injure them. The victims of ichneumons are by no means restricted to caterpillars. Many kinds of aphides or”green fly”are attacked by small flies allied to Apanteles. An aphid that has been destroyed by one of their grubs shows a curious rotund, swollen aspect, a circular hole through which the parasite emerged being conspicuous in the brown hardened skin. Lacewing-Flies. These are insects of the order Neuroptera, with two pairs of amplemembranousnet-veined wings and biting jaws. Their active grubs live on plants infected with aphides, among which they wander, and on which they prey. The lacewing grub has long slender mandibles, on which the aphid is impaled and its juices sucked out. Some of the”aphid lions”as these lacewing grubs are sometimes calledattach the shrivelled skins of their victims to the tubercles that cover their bodies, so that they wander around like the primitive human hunter attired in the spoils of the creatures that they have slain and devoured. G. H. C.

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INSECT FRIENDS

General Methods of Destruction.Having described a few of the numerous insect pests which worry the gardener, we give below some notes on the making of various sprays, washes, etc., which are there recommended for destroying the various pests. No good purpose, for instance, could be served by repeating the formula of Paraffin Jelly every time it is mentioned, since it would be mere repetition. Many books might, however, be written on General Methods of Destruction of Insect Pests, so it will be obvious that the few notes that follow might be amplified very much. However, we prefer to describe the ways of making a few of the most important and most frequently employed insecticides, rather than cover many pages in describing the preparation of every wash that is known. Those we describe will cover, it will be found, practically the whole ground, and this being the case, little attention need bepaid to the preparation of special washes which are not described in these notes. In most cases the gardener can obtain the preparations described below ready-made from any reliable horticultural sundriesman, and although in such cases as Lime Sulphur Wash and Arsenate of Lead it is far better to rely on preparations made by experts under chemical supervision, in others the washes may be prepared quite easily and quickly by the gardener himself. Care should, however, be taken to measure or weigh up the various chemicals and liquids referred to exactly, since a small error in such as Arsenate of Lead, or other poisonous chemicals, may lead to serious loss instead of benefit. The gardener will find our article on Weights and Measures useful here. One point more before we describe the mixtures themselves. There are certain washes highly praised in many gardening books, such as American Paraffin Emulsion, Paranaph, Resin Spray, etc. ; these are not included in the present article since they are not of any special value here. Soil fumigants as such, are also excluded, as they receive full attention in our article on Soil Fumigating. Arsenate of Lead.This is used for killing biting or leaf-eating insects, such as Caterpillars and Beetles. The formula is Arsenate of Soda (Com.) . 2 oz. Acetate of Lead . . 7 ,, Water . . . .10 gals. Dissolve the two chemicals in water, and apply as a fine spray. Various commercial”pastes”are on the market, and may be obtained ready for use on being mixed with water. This wash may be used with Bordeaux Mixture. Caustic Soda Wash.This is used for cleaning fruit trees, and destroying scale-insects, also the wintering little Ermine Moth larvae. Its formula is Caustic Soda (Com.) . 2 lb. Water . . . .10 gals. Dissolve the Caustic Soda in a little cold water, and dilute with the remainder. Keep the liquid ofi the hands and clothes, as it is very corrosive. Apply with considerable force as a spray, not later than the end of February, and never use except on dormant fruit trees. Hellebore Spray.Hellebore is an intensely poisonous and strong smelling powder, which is useful as an insecticide for Sawfly larvae where Arsenate of Lead could not be used. It is not, however, nearly so efficacious. The formula of the spray is Hellebore Powder . . 4 oz. Water …. 10 gals. Hellebore should always be dissolved in a little hot water first, and then the mixture diluted to required strength. The eyes, nose, and throat must be protected when using it. The powder itself may also be used dry as a dust. As a modem insecticide, however, it may be discarded. Hydrocyanic Acid Gas.This is used for fumigating glasshouses and fruit trees in order to kill Mealy Bug, Scale, and other insects. The formula is Potassium Cyanide (98 per cent, purity) . . i oz. Sulphuric Acid (Sp. Gravity 1-83) . . . i|oz. Water . . . . 3 oz. For hardy or dormant plants use i oz. of Potassium Cyanide to 200 cubic ft. of space, and for tender plants use I oz. of the Cyanide per 500 cubic ft. The method of estimating the cubical air contents of greenhouses is dealt with in our article ARITHMETIC AND Gardening. As the gas is exceedingly dangerous to human beings, precautions must be taken before adopting this method of destroying pests. Special apphances are thus necessary to enable the house to be worked from the outside, and such can be obtained from horticultural sundriesmen. The house should be as dry as possible, the temperature not exceeding 60 degrees F. First make the house as air-tight as possible, and pour the Sulphuric Acid slowly into the water, usmg an earthenware or non-metal jar. Then drop the Cyanide into it, and note that the deadly fumes come away at once. Leave the house sealed up for at least an hour, after which ventilate completely before attempting to enter it. One machine will be needed for each 10,000 cubic ft. of space treated. Fruit trees, before planting, may be put into small air-tight houses or sheds, and left for at least three hours, to kill Scale, Woolly Aphis, etc., upon them. Lime Salt Wash.This is most effectual in the cleaning of orchard trees, and for killing Apple and Plum Aphis. It also checks the Apple Sucker and Apple Blossom Weevil. It is one of the most useful washes of all, since the lime and salt return to the soil, and much improve the health of the trees, so that they are better able to resist disease. The formula is Quicklime . . . i-ii cwt. Common Salt . 5 lb. Water . . . 100 gals. Slake the lime up with water, and then strain through a coarse piece of sacking into the salt and water. Apply as a thick spray any time between late February and the bursting of the buds. Lime Sulphur Wash.This is most useful for destroying Scale insects in the winter and summer. It is difficult to mix accurately, and gardeners are advised to purchase it ready-made from any rehable firm. London Purple.This is a waste product which contains much soluble Arsenic, and unless lime is added, very serious scorching will take place. We cannot recommend it highly, as its killing power is low compared to Arsenate of Lead, and its evil effects are too frequent. The formula, however, is London Purple . 3 oz. Quicklime . . . 3

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INSECTICIDES

There appears to be some doubt as to the exact meaning of the term”intercropping.”People confuse it indiscriminately with catch cropping, with rotational cropping, and even with successional cropping. But, very briefly, intercropping is the act of growing one maincrop subject between another. In the article on Catch Crops we saw how to grow quickly maturing crops between those which stand longer upon the ground, and the question that every gardener has to answer for himself before proceeding far into the matter of intercropping is whether it is applicable in his case and in his district or not. Intercropping is a matter on which there are many opinions, and it is doubtful whether it pays in suburban areas, where there is much smoke in the atmosphere or anything else to hinder the proper and rapid development of the crops. Given agenial climate in the south of England, far away from varnish, steel, soap or other factories, with a warm, light soil, a moderate rainfall, and a little knowledge of the culture of vegetable crops, there is no reason why intercropping should not be the great success we wish. In the absence, however, of these conditions it is better to leave it alone. If intercropping is to be successful, then the originally intended maincrops must be set at slightly greater distances apart than is usually allowed. No good purpose can be served by crowding, and what is winked at in the case of catch crops must be treated with contempt in the case of intercropping. Savoy cabbages, broccoli, curled greens, maincrop potatoes, cauliflowers, red cabbage, chou de burghley, Brussels sprouts, and kale are all crops which can be grown on the intercropping system. As, however, all of these take up considerable space, if one is to be planted between the other, room must be allowed for their proper development. One of the greatest essentials in successful intercropping is a rich soil, and if this is non-existent it would be foolish in extreme to tax the already poor soil by growing two crops instead of one at the same time. It would also be foolish to plant one crop between another before the first crop was anything like matured, in the hope that the second crop might get food enough to develop when the first had been taken from the land. Much, however, can be done by the use of suitable liquid animal manures or fertilisers, and certainly for all successful intercropping these liquids must not be stinted. Strong plants are the first essential, and any one who has seen cabbages, etc., struggling for life between rows of maincrop or early potatoes will realise how strong each subject must be. The after care of all intercropped areas is the same as that given to those which are grown in the ordinary way, namely, frequent hoeing and weeding must be carried out, and the crops lifted, cut, or harvested at a suitable time.E.

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INTUMESCENCES

This may be said to be a flower of the future. So far there are not a great number of sorts offered by the trade to choose from, nor are the flowers as attractive as some. The plants, however, come in very well for shrubbery borders, sunny spots in the wild garden, or the mixed border, but they are hardly of sufficient merit to be put among ones choicest plants in the perennial border. Culture.But little difficulty will be found in growing these even by amateur gardeners and beginners who have no experience of gardening. They may be planted any time from the early winter onwards into the early spring, and are easily propagated by seeds sown in the usual way, or division of the rootstocks ; this last operation being conducted in November or February. A position in full sun suits them ; we grow ours in a mixed border facing due south. They will thrive in any garden soil of fair quality. If large flowers are required, abundance of water should be applied in hot seasons, and weak liquid manure will also be a decided help. What to Grow.We recommend the following : Inula glandulosa. A desirable sort, with golden-yellow flowers. These are produced in July and onwards. The height is about 2 ft. I. grandiflora.This large freeflowering yellow sort, blooming from July well into the autumn, is by someauthorities considered synonymous with Helenium grandiflorum. Its height is 2-3 ft. /. Helenium (Elecampane).This is sometimes mistaken for an Helenium. It is a yellow summerflowering sort averaging i yd. in height. /. Hookeri.Probably the most popular sort of all. Its flowers are as usual, yellow, and are large ; they come later than the other sorts, the plant being at its best in August. The height averages rather less than I yd. /. macrocephala. This useful yellow flowering sort, coming in at the same time as Inula grandiflora, appears to be synonymous with I. royleana. It averages 3 ft. in height. I. royleana.-This bears attractive yellow flowers from July to September, and averages 3 ft. in height. See also Elecampane in Medicinal Herbs.

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I ONOPSIDITJM

This a very large genus composed mostly of climbing plants, the greater part being tropical or sub-tropical perennials. There are a few annual species which need to be grown in a warm house in this country, but the one hardy annual species, /. purpurea (Syns. Convolvulus major, C. purpureus, and Pharbitis hispida), is well known in gardens, and the parent of a race of popular summer-flowering climbing plants. Seedlings may be raised under similar treatment to that found successful for half-hardy annuals, but unless each seedling is placed in a separate pot quite early in its career there is likely to be loss and disappointment when planting is done. The expression”hardy”requires a little qualification in regard to Ipomoea purpureait is nearly, but not quite, hardy in the majority of British gardens. Early May is soon enough to make a sowing out of doors, and late May or early June quite soon enough to plant out seedlings raised under glass. For covering arches, trellis work, and for wreathing windows, this plant, popularly known as the Morning Glory, is charming, no matter what the colour of its flowers may be, and the colour range extends from white, through pink, rose, and crimson, to purple, pale blue, and various striped shades. There are double as well as single varieties, but the latter are the most popular. The flowers of both are short-lived, it is true, but so freely produced that this defect is hardly noticed. The typical I. purpurea, and its varieties elatior, white and blue, and varia, white, striped blue, or pink, were valued in gardens in our greatgrandfathers days, and each was figured in the Botanical Magazine about a hundred years ago. C. H. C. See also Climbing AND Trailing Plants.

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IRIS

The Iris genus is confined to the northern temperate zone and numbers more than one hundred and fifty species, distributed from California in the West to Japan in the East, and from Alaska in the North to Hong-Kong in the South. Many of the species hybridise readily with one another, and a large proportion of the Irises usually seen in gardens are of hybrid origin and not wild species. Most Irises flower in the first six months of theyear, while a few flower somewhat irregularly in the autumn. BULBOUS IRISES. I. The Reticulata Section. All the members of this section have bulbs with outer coats formed of a network of coarse fibres. The socalled type /. reticulata is of a deep blue colour with a central streak of orange on the falls, and slender four-sided leaves. It is probably much rarer in the wild state in the Caucasus than its red-purple counterpart, /. Krelagei. They both flower in February and March. /. Histrio from Syria is less hardy and has flowers brightly mottled with two shades of blue, while the still more delicate /. Variant from Palestine has flowers of a pale grey blue with a strong scent of almonds. 1. histrioides from Northern Asia Minor is far more vigorous and has large flowers of a bright steel blue which appear as soon as the leaves pierce the ground. The dwarf I. Danfordiae from Central Asia Minor ha brilliant yellow flowers. All the members of the section seem to prefer a good soil, rich in humus, but at the same time warm and well drained. The bulbs should be lifted annually and replanted in fresh ground after a short interval ; if left undisturbed, they sometimes increase rapidly, but often fall victims to a fungoid disease. The flowers are stemless, but are raised on long perianth-tubes to a height of 6-9 ins. above the ground. 2. The Juno Section.These Irises are distinguished by their broad, channelled leaves and by the fleshy tuberous roots that remain attached to the bulb in its resting state. /. alata from Spain, Sicily, and North Africa, and I. palaestina from Palestine are autumn- and winter-flowering species which unfortunately cannot be relied upon to ripen their growth in this country so as to form flowering bulbs for the next season. Height, 6-8 ins. /. persica, with flowers of bluegreen and brown-purple, is a difficult species to grow except in stiff loam, but well repays any trouble, as do also its near allies /. Beldreichii or stenophylla, with flowers of two shades of blue-purple, and the redpurple I. Tauri. None of these grow more than 6 ins. high. /. sindjarensis from Mesopotamia grows to a foot or more in height, and needs a stiff soil. It bears pale blue flowers and has produced some beautiful hybrids with the various members of the persica group. The following species come from farther east in Central Asia and are better suited to a light sandy soil well enriched with old manure and leaf-soil : I. Rosenbachiana, with flowers of every shade of blue- and redpurple height, 8 ins. ; I. hucharica, a very vigorous grower with white and yellow flowers ; I. orchioides, wholly yellow ; and I. Warleyensis, of a rich purple with a conspicuous yellow blotch. The last three species hybridise easily together, and give rise to a number of intermediate forms ; height, 12-18 ins., flowering in March and April. 3. The Xiphion Section.The members of this section arechiefly confined to Spain and Portugal, with outlying members in North Africa and South-Western France. I. XipMum, the wild type of the wellknown Spanish Irises, has blue flowers, but has given rise in cultivation to innumerable varieties. Yellow forms are obtained from the nearly allied Portuguese /. lusitanica, while I. fiUfolia from the extreme south of Spain and the neighbourhood of Tangier has flowers of a magnificent red-purple shade. The giant I. tingitana does not flower freely except in very warm and shelteredpositions. Its bulbs need very rich feeding if they are to become strong enough to bloom. All the above species like a soil that becomes warm and dry in the late summer, but the so-called English Iris, I. xiphioides, which is really a native of the Pyrenees, needs a cool, moist position to do well. The wild plant has flowers of a deep blue, but under cultivation has given rise to many varieties of all shades of purple, ranging from the deepest blue to pure white. The members of this section vary in height from 12 to 24 ins., according to soil and position. NON-BULBOUS OR RHIZOMATOUS SPECIES. These have a rootstock consisting of a rhizome or underground stem, and are divided into Pogoniris, of which the flowers are bearded, and Apogon species, which are beardless. Pogoniris or Bearded Species. These are perhaps the best Icnown of all Irises. They range from the dwarf 1. pumila, which sends up its stemless flowers in April, to the 4 ft. high 7. trojana and /. mesopotamica, which do not flower until June. The wild species are confined to Central and Southern Europe and Western Asia. Species and hybrids aUke all prefer a good rich soil plentifully supplied with lime, and it is essential that the positions chosen should be well drained and sunny. The plants should be lifted and replanted every two or three years, and the best time for this operation is immediately the flowers have faded, though it may be carried out with success as late as August or even in early September. If the rhizomes are replanted after that date, root growth has practically ceased for the year, and the plants are therefore unable to anchor themselves in the ground before winter. In soil not deficient in lime these Irises are rarely attacl-ed bydisease, and the one disease to which the rhizomes sometimes fall victims is easily checked by a liberal application of superphosphate of lime, which should be watered in, if the soil and the weather are dry. There are many species of bearded Iris, of which some have given rise to innumerable hybrids. Among the more desirable are : /. pumila, very variable as to colour in the wild state ; of garden forms, coerulea is one of the most pleasing, 6 ins., April ; I. Chaniaeiris may be obtained in white, yellow, red-, or blue-purple forms, 6-12 ins., April and May ; /. arenaria, bright yellow, 4-6 ins.. May ; I. aphylla, with a branching stem and flowers of blue- and redpurple, very hardy and floriferous, 12-18 ins., May; Caparne hybrids or intermediates between the foregoing and the later and larger species, 12- 18 ins.. May. Some of the best are : Ivorine, ivory white ; Queen Flavia, deep yellow ; Don Carlos, deep blue ; Dorothy, grey blue ; the so – called Germanica Hybrids, though it is probable that no such wild species as germanica ever existed. Some good forms are Kharput (28 ins.), red- purple ; Amas or macrantha (24 ins.), blue-purple ; Oriflamme (30 ins.), an improvement on Amas ; Kochii (18 ins.), a dwarf dark red-purple ; ftorentina (24 ins.), white, tinged with faint blue. Other good plants are : albicans (24 ins.), pure white, the albino form of the blue – purple Madonna (24 ins.) ; pallida (12- 36 ins.), in all shades of blue and redpurple, e.g. dalmatica (30 ins.), pale lavender, Ciengialti (15 ins.), dwarf blue, Goldcrest (26 ins.), a taller blue ; Monte Brione (30 ins.), red ; Ed. Michel (30 ins.), red ; Mrs Alan Grey (24 ins.). Queen of May (30 ins.). Her Majesty (30 ins.)all good pinks; Mme Chereau (36 ins.) and Jeanne dArc (30 ins.), white, edged blue and purple ; Prosper Laugier (36 ins.), Isoline (36 ins.), Alcazar (30 ins.) all of mixed and almost indescribable colouring ; Black Prince (30 ins.), very late, of light and dark blue-purple ; Thorbecke (30 ins.), white and deep purple ; variegata (12-30 ins.), yellow with purple and mahogany veining, of which the best forms are Iris-king (30 ins.), Gracchus (24 ins.), and Maori-king (24 ins.) ; trojana (40 ins.), tall and late, with flowers of two shades of red-purple on muchbranched stems. Oncocyclus Irises are a peculiar group of species confined to Asia Minor, Syria, and Persia. They have broad straggling beards and only one flower, often of immense size, on the stem. They are difficult to grow, but so amazing in their shape and colouring as to be well worth the efiort. The rhizomes must be planted in October in a warm, well-drained position in strong, rich soil. They should be lifted in July and kept dry till October. Iherica (8-12 ins.) is one of the easiest ; paradoxa (12- 18 ins.), Lortetii (20 ins.), Gaiesii (20-24 ins.), susiana (24 ins.). Sari (15 ins.), acutiloba (12 ins.) will all repay successful cultivation. Regelia Irises are closely allied to the Oncocyclus species. They produce two or three flowers on each stem and, though needing the same treatment as the Oncocyclus species, are quite easy to grow under those conditions. Only three species are commonly in cultivation, but all are worth growing : Korolkowi (12-18 ins.); siolontfera(i2-24 ins.), Hoogiana (24 ins.). Regeliocyclus hybrids between the above groups combine some of the features of both and grow more vigorously. Some of the best are Charon, Persephone, Sirona. Apogon or Beardless Species. Of these there are a number of groups and some isolated species, several of which have given rise to garden forms. The sibirica group needs cool soil, rich in humus. The best are the type and its albino form, I. sibirica and sibirica alba (18-36 ins.); I. orientalis and 1. orientalis alba (Snow Queen) (24-30 ins.) ; Wilsoni (30 ins.) and Forrestii (18 ins.), yellow ; chrysographes (18-24 ins.), very rich dark purple with gold veining ; Clarkei (18-24 s.), of various shades of purple ; Delavayi (36 ins.), tall and late, of various rich shades of purple. Bog Irises are our native Pseudacorus (36-40 ins.), yellow, and its American counterpart versicolor (24- 36 ins.), with a good crimson form kermesina ; laevigata (18-24 ins.), a rich blue with a pure white form and another spotted with blue {albopurpurea) ; Kaempferi (24-36 ins.), the Japanese Iris, with its innumerable varieties, which must have rich soil and moisture. Many Apogon Irises do well in borders of rich, well-manured soil. Among these are : spuria (24-48 ins.), of various shades of purple ; ochroleuca (36-48 ins.), white and yellow ; aurea (36-48 ins.), deep yellow ; Monnieri (36-48 ins.), lemon yellow ; Monspur (36-48 ins.), a hybrid between Monnieri and spuria. All these ha-ve tall, stiff, narrow foliage and tall stems, bearing flowers of the shape of the Spanish Iris, arranged in a spike one above the other. I. longipetata (24 ins.), 1. 1, montana (18-24 ins.) (tolmeiana), and Tollokg (24-30 ins.) are an American group of good border plants. The Californian species douglasiana (12- 24 ins.), tenax (12-18 ins.), Purdyi (12 ins.), bracteata (18 ins.), macrosiphon (12 ins.), Watsoniana (18- 24 ins.) show amazing variety of colour, each individual plant being different. They are, however, not easy to move, but succeed well inlight, rich soil, free from lime. They should be raised from seed and planted out where they are to bloom. Our native foetidissima (18-24 ins.), with lead-colour or yellow flowers, will grow in half – shady places among trees, and its scarlet seeds are decorative in winter. I. ensata forms huge tufts of foliage, which remain green in the hottest seasons and produce numerous stems with small graceful flowers in May. Its colour is mostly a blue purple, but there are white and dark forms and a Tibetan -variety with larger flowers of primrose shaded with blue-grey. I. rulhenica (6-9 ins.) is a dwarf plant well suited for edges or for growing on a rockery. The best form is very floriferous and bears blue flowers in May. /. graminea (12-24 ins.) is a good plant for the front of a border and should be grown for the scent of its flowers, which is like that of a ripe greengage. 1. unguicularis {styloso) is one of the most valuable of winter-flowering plants and should be given the best available position, close against the foot of a south wall, by preference against the wall of a greenhouse, where it will be helped by the warmth from within. It should be planted in early September in rather poor soil with some lime rubble and then left undisturbed. Each autumn the old leaves should be cleaned from the clumps, which must be carefully searched for slugs and snails which take refuge in them and eat the buds. No stem is produced, but the perianth-tube grows to a length of 6 ins. The flowers should be gathered in bud and allowed to open indoors. There is an ivory white form which is scarcely so good as the lavender purple type. Speciosa is a dwarflate-flowering form with deep, richly coloured flowers. All Apogon Irises should be moved in early autumn while the soil is still warm enough to encourage fresh root action, so that the plants become re-established before winter. They must not be allowed to become dry, and must therefore be watered in periods of drought. Evansia Irises form a connecting link between the bearded and the beardless species, for the flowers bear a linear crest, something like a cockscomb. I. cristata (6 ins.), gracilipes (10 ins.), lacusiris (4 ins.) are dwarf rockery species, which must have half-shade and soil rich in humus. They are easily managed if moved immediately the flowers have faded. Upheaval in autumn is nearly always fatal. 1. Tectorum (18 ins.) and Milesii (30 ins.), the first dwarf and the second tall, have flat fringed flowers and are good border Irises, if frequently lifted and replanted. I. japonica (24 ins.), lilac, and Wattii (36-48 ins.), white, are species for the cool greenhouse, with branching sprays of delicate fringed flowers and evergreen foliage. Propagation of Irises.This is easily carried out either by dividing the rhizomes in the case of named varieties or by seeds in the case of the species. Seeds should be sown when ripe in pots of light soil enriched with leaf-mould, and the pots should then be plunged to the rim in the open ground. Seeds of species will then germinate in the spring, and the seedlings may be planted out in their permanent quarters as soon as they possess about four leaves. Seeds of hybrids germinate more irregularly and, if they are of any value, the ungerminated seeds should be sifted out and resown when the seedlings are put out. Seeds have been known to lie dormant in the soil for eighteen years and then to germinate and produce healthy plants.W. R. D. New Varieties. The following are some of the best : Iris Cantab.This has fragrant light blue fiowersj and an orange scarlet disc or ridge. /. germanica Richard II.T]As has white standards shaded lavender, and deep maroon falls lined with white. /. Hoogiana.This has two mauve flowers in each spathe, with a golden beard. /. Iota.-This has pale mauve standards with darker falls. I. LeucothcBa.This has purplishlilac standards with a darker netting, and falls of the same colour but shaded grey, with black beard. /. Little Bride.-This has erect pale lavender standards with paler falls, and an orange ridge down the middle. /. Rotherside Masterpiece.This has creamy-white standards with golden-orange falls. /. sibirica Emperor.This has larger and better flowers than the type, and grows 3J ft. high. /. s. Perrys Blue.Both the standards and falls of this are dark blue, but the style is much paler. /. Turkoman.This has brown standards with blue veins. The falls are darker, and it has a deep blue beard. W. J. C.

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