Many alcohols react with acids, like metallic hydroxides and form what are termed alkyl salts or esters; for example, ethyl alcohol and acetic acid by interaction give ethyl acetate and water CjHjOH + CH3CO,OH = CH3,COO,C2H6 + H,, the replaceable hydrogen atoms of the carboxylic group being exchanged for alkyl radicals, and the process is known as esteritication. The esters so produced from the fatty acids are more or less volatile neutral liquids which are readily hydrolyzed when heated with water or alkalies or acids back again into the corresponding alcohols and acids. Monobasic acids such as nitric acid yield only one kind of ester termed “normal or neutral esters.” but dibasic acids yield two series termed “acid esters” and “neutral esters” thus ethyl nitrate is N03, while we have the two etbyl sulphates,HS<, and and the several fatty acids thus stearinC3Hjj3 + 3KH0 = 3K + C3H63 Some of the better known commercial esters are alphabetically listed below: The amyl esters of formic, acetic, and hexoic acids are among the odorous constituents of apples.
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