Hardy Plants for. Many fine groups of Hardy Plants are available for use as Edging Plants, and the garden-maker has a wide and varied choice when selecting. Edgings may briefly be defined as”formal”and”informal.”In the first, the plants should be as neat in growth and as uniform in blossom and colourings as possible.”Informal”plantings give the planter more scope in the choice of subjects, and are greatly preferable. Leaving out the usual edging subjects, such as Buxus sempervirens, Lavandula Spica, shrubby Veronicas, etc. (which are really shrubs pure and simple, and therefore cannot be regarded by the simple definition of Hardy Plants), a wide choice is open to us. Some of these are mentioned below : Anemones such as A. blanda, Hepatica, sylvestris, etc., are charming. Arabises such as A. alpina, alpina variegata, albida, and albida flore pleno are widely used. The albida section are very aggressive, and need constant replanting. Armerias, or Sea Pinks, are very pleasing, especially the dwarf brightly coloured varieties. Astilbes of the newer and more charming species and varieties are splendid for fringing informal pathways in moist places. Auhrietias are excellent. Neat, dwarf, floriferous, and very showy in colour. Varieties like Dr Mules, Lady Marjorie, Lavender, and Triumph are very desirable, planted separately, though seedlings”of a first-class strain are glorious when grown intermixed as informal edgings on the raised sides of pathways. Campanulas are of first-rate importance. All the carpatica group are heartily recommended. C. pulla and varieties of the pumila and pusilla groups make very pleasing effects, and many of the hybrids, such as Profusion, Stansfieldi, and others, are exceedingly good. Cerasiiums, owing to their aggressive root action, cannot be recommended, unless utilised for poor, dry soils. Corydalisespecially such forms as C. chielanthifolia and C. nobilis make pleasing edgings. Dianthuses are extremely serviceable. Species such as D. caesius, deltoides, etc., are charming, and the newest hybrids, which include gracilis and Rosalind, are exceptionally good. Ericas, though hard-wooded, shrubby plants, make splendid edgings, especially E. carnea, carnea alba, and mediterranea hybrida. Erigerons can be utilised in a large measure, especially the continuous flowering E. mucronatus. Gentians, though so well adapted for rock garden plantings, can be used if necessary. Notable forms such as G. acaulis, acaulis alba, asclepiadea, septemfida, and verna are suitable. Geraniums of the best hardy sorts are permissible. Geums such as G. Heldreichii, maximum, and montanum can be utilised. Gypsophilas, especially G. repens monstrosa and Sundermanni, are also very pleasing. Heleniums, including H. grandiflorum and pumilum, make good edgings. Helianthemums, or Sun Roses, can be safely relied on, especially the neater double-flowered varieties. Heucheras one can plant freely. They are ideal, especially Beacon, Rosamunde, Scarlet Spray, St Osyth, and similar free-flowering varieties. Hypericums, with their sheets of golden blossoms, are glorious. Iberis is invaluable for making snowy drifts of blossom. I. correaefolia, garrexiana, sempervirens, superba, and other effective forms are ideal. Kmphofias of the types of K. Goldelse andTorchlight are excellent, Lithospermums, particularly L. Heavenly Blue and L. prostratum, are worthy of note. Mimulus furnishes a wealth of varied colourings for the purpose. Nepeta Mussini is good, especially where there is plenty of space. It can be associated with Lavender. Phloxes of the setacea and subulata groups furnish many neat, attractive dwarf plants. P. atropurpurea. Brightness, G. F. Wilson, lilacina, Nelsoni, and others may be looked upon as especially choice subjects. The low-growing herbaceous Phloxes such as P. Carolina, divaricata, divaricata alba, and Laphami are of much value and surpassing beauty. Pinks (see also Dianthus) make good edging subjects, especially for formal work. Varieties such as Her Majesty, Mrs Sinkins, Progress, and Snowdrift are very desirable. Plumbago Larpentae makes a good blue-flowered subject, very hardy and attractive en masse. Polemoniums such as P. Richardsonii can be used. Polygalas are useful for small edgings. Primulas are capable of great effects. P. Beesiana, pulverulenta, sikkimensis, and others are grand for moist situations. The Alpine types are excellent in drier positions. P. Auricula, golden-yellow, and P. 284 Auricula Revolution, brilliant red, are wonderfully fine. Saxifrages furnish a host of worthy subjects, ranging from the large-leaved S. Megasea to the very dwarf species such as S. apiculata, Boydii, Pseudo-sancta, Salomoni, sancta, etc. Mossy Saxifrages are favoured for cool pathways, and of these we can heartily recommend S. Arkwrightii, Beacon, ceratophylla. Fire King, hypnoides. Red Admiral, rheimagnifica, and Wallacei as being typically useful plants. Silver Saxifrages are best represented by such forms as S. cochlearis. Cotyledon, lantoscana superba, lingulata superisa, macnabiana, etc. Saxifraga umbrosa is widely used ; it is neat, but rather short-lived in blossom. Nearly all the dwarfer species in the article on Saxifraga can be used. Sedumsthough not equal to the Saxifrages in valuecan be freely used, especially such species as S. glaucum, obtusatum, rupestre, sexangulare, spathulifolium, and spurium rubrum. Silenes can be used, selecting the best species. Spiraeas (like Astilbes) furnish a considerable variety of good material for bold work. Tiarella cordifolia is good, contributing pleasing effects in drifts, with its abundant foamy blossoms. Verbena chamaedryoides should be chosen for its brilliant scarlet colouring. Nothing exceeds it in effect, and a five years test in an East Coast garden has proved its value and hardiness. Veronicas of the dwarfer types offer some useful plants. V. incana, rupestris, and verbenacea, as well as the taller subsessilis, are good types, while the tiny shrubby gems such as V. Catarractae, white, and Heavenly Blue are very fine.Vincas should only be used in cases of necessity, but are useful in shade and in poor soils. Violas are first rate. Especially would we draw attention to V. gracilis, violet blue, and the many fine varieties and hybrids of recent origin. These are the most glorious of all edgings plants, and are hardier and more floriferous than the much esteemed florists Violas (see the special article on Viola). All varieties are worthy of consideration for edgings. Zauschneria californica should not be omitted. It is another grand scarlet-flowered subject, but needs the growths to be well ripened to ensure a good display of blossom. Popular Edging Plants.The most popular edging plants are probably to be found among the typical hardy bedding plants, under which we note Alyssums of the saxatile type, Bellis, Cheiranthus, Myosotis, Polyanthus, Primula vulgaris, etc. (Many of the subjects preceding can also be used for bedding purposes.) Bulbs, though out of the range of this article, are famous subjects for edgings, especially the freefiowering, dwarf-growing species and varieties, which are so largely used for rock garden planting. Omissions.The subject of edgings offers an immense field of study and experimental work among the Hardy Plants, and many subjects are perforce omitted from the foregoing notes which would make pleasing edging plants. Among these one may note Alyssum maritimum, Caliha palustris flore plena (damp places), Coreopsis lanceolata, Linums (such as flavum, narbonense, and perenne), Pyrethrum hybridum, Trollius, Scabiosa caucasica, and the dwarfer perennial Statices.P. S. H.
(Nat. Ord. Scrophulariacese). This is a hardy evergreen rockery plant suitable for rocky crevices, old walls, and stony places. It comes up freely from self-sown seeds. Erinus alpinus.A small tufted species. Flowers reddish-purple. Site sunny. Soil limestone rubbish. Flowering Period, May to July. Height, 4 ins. The variety albus has white flowers.
None of the flowers that we grow are in the true sense of the word”everlasting,”and when this descriptive word is used horticulturally it is generally in a comparative sense. Several genera (mostly belonging to the natural order Composites) produce flowers of a tough papery consistency, which if gathered and hung downwards in a dry, clean place before they are fully expanded will dry well, and retain their form and colour for a long time if placed in dry vases, after their stems have been hardened by the drying process. All the classes of plants referred to in the following notes are best treated as half-hardy annuals. They should thus be sown in the usual way in gentle heat during February or March, after which pricking out and hardening off follow prior to planting out of doors. Acroclinium roseum.See Helipterum roseum, below. Ammobium (Everlasting Sunflower). A. alatum, the Winged Everlasting, and its variety grandiflorum bear yellow and white flowers from June to August, on plants 1-2 ft. high. The latter is the larger and finer variety. A. plantagineum bears white flowers about the same time, but rarely exceeds i8 ins. in height. Athanasia annua. See Lonas inodora, below. Gnaphalium obtusifolium.This is a yellow July flowering plant about 12 ins. high. Helichrysum (Everlasting Flower).H. bradeatum is the principal species and is an attractive subject blooming from July to September, and growing 1-3 ft. high. There are numerous varieties offered by seedsmen, and the flowers may be white, rose-pink, red, clear yellow, or golden-yellow. The sorts named monstrosum and nanum are probably the best on the market. Helipterum.This Australian genus is sometimes known by the name of Immortelle, but this popular name belongs more to Xeranthemum, to be described directly. H. humboldtianum (Syn. H. Sandjordii) bears yellow flowers from June onwards and averages I J ft. in height. H. Manglesii (Syn. Rhodanthe Manglesii), is a charming plant for pot culture in the conservatory or for house decoration. It bears rose-coloured flowers from June onwards, and grows I ft. high. It may be sown out of doors in April, in a sunny site, and the seedlings thinned to 2-3 ins. apart each way. H. roseum (Syn. Acroclinium roseum), a pretty subject, bears rose-coloured flowers from June onwards, and averages 1-2 ft. in height. Lonas inodora (Syn. Athanasia annua) bears yellow flowers from July onwards, and averages i ft. in height. A distance of not less than 6 ins. should be left between each plant. Rhodanthe Manglesii (Syn. R. maculatum).See Helipterum Manglesii, above. Waitzia aurea.This bears golden yellow flowers in the late summer, and averages 18 ins. in height. Xeranthemum (Immortelle). This is a very popular everlasting flower, especially abroad, where, when dyed and dried, it is used for wreath-making. If the flowers are cut when just opening and hung downwards in a dry shed for a time they will last for a long period and may be used for room decoration. The best species are: X. annuum (purple) ; X. cylindraceum (white) ; X. erectum (white) ; X. inapertum (purple) ; and X. longepapposum (white) ; all of which bloom from July onwards, and average 9-12 ins. in height. C. H. C. See also Helichrysum.
Half-Hardy, Half-Hardy Annuals. Ageratums (in variety). Asters (in variety). Balsams (in variety). Lobelias (dwarf). Nasturtiums (dwarf). Nemesias. Petunias (in variety). Phlox Drummondii (in variety), etc. Portulacas (in variety). Sedum coeruleum (in variety). Half-Hardy Perennials. Antirrhinums (dwaii varieties). Antirrhinums (intermediate varieties). Begonias (Tuberous). Begonias (Fibrous). Echeverias (in variety). Geraniums (Ivy). Geraniums (Zonal). Heliotrope (in variety). Mesembryanthemum (in variety). Salvias (in variety). Verbenas, etc. P. S. H.
(Woolly Knotweed. Nat. Ord. Polygonacese). This genus is not grown as often as it might be, but it includes some useful hardy herbaceous perennials and rock plants. It is not hard to grow provided that a light loamy soil with some peat in it is suppHed ; and it is propagated in the usual way by seeds sown in the spring or summer, and by division of the roots in the autumn or spring. Perennial Bolder Species. We briefly describe a few of the best below : Eriogonum compositum.A yellow or sometimes white species flowering from June onwards. Height, 12-18 ins. E. longifolium.A species with yellowish flowers blooming from June onwards. Height, 12-18 ins. E. tomentosum.This also bears yellowish flowers. They open in May and continue till July. Height about 2 ft. Rock Garden Species.The two described below are evergreen trailing plants suitable for a rocky bank : Eriogonum flavum. A tufted plant. Leaves entirely silvery. Flowers yellow in large umbels. Site sunny. Soil gritty loam. Flowering Period, July. Height, 9 ins. E. umhellatum.Also tufted, and spreading. Flowers golden-yellow. Site sunny. Soil gritty loam. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 6 ins.
The amateur floriculturist who grows flowers for exhibition would be distinctly displeased with the Editor and the staff of Blacks Gardening Dictionary if an article, although short, was not included on the matter of exhibiting flowers, and although we are unable to give the lengthy dissertation upon this subject that some readers would wish, we are quite willing to spare a little space for a few practical hints on this all-important interesting topic. As a judge who has officially attended many shows, the present writer wishes first of all to draw the attention of exhibitors to the frequent irresponsible mistakes which they make. For instance, the schedule 302 provides that four Dahlias of one variety shall be exhibited, and the exhibitor and would-be prize-winner finds that he has five uniform blooms, so instead of devoting his vases or glasses to the four best he puts five flowers in, and thus has to be immediately disqualified. Similar mistakes are found in bouquets of flowers. In a recent show attended by the writer the schedule specified that twelve different species of flowers were to form one bouquet. Competitors in this class failed to grasp the meaning of the term twelve different species. Some put fourteen, some as many as twenty, and some put only eight different flowers. The Secretary was approached on this matter to see whether an) inquiries as to the exact meaning of the term Twelve Species had been made, but competitors, instead of asking, had concluded that their own reading of the term was correct. The first thing that judges do in the show tent is to read the rules which govern the show. Now, long experience enables most judges to grasp in a very few minutes the salient points of these regulations, and one of the first things they do is to weed out any exhibits which are too poor to consider and which are irregular in character. The first needs no comment, but the irregularities in exhibits which are so common need a word or two of attention. A man, for instance, enters a class for twelve blooms of one variety of any flower, for instance the Dahlia. He finds he has twelve of uniform and moderate size, which are of good shape and of unblemished character. Then just as he is going to the show he sees that he has three much bigger blooms uncut. Temptation immediately assails him, and he falls a victim. He removes three of the uniform good-sized blooms and puts in the three much larger ones, thinking that he will be certain to win the prize this way. The judges arri-ve. They see this one-sided, ungainly exhibit, and they weed it out. The man who has twelve blooms of uniform size is awarded the prize. A frequent source of annoyance to judges and disappointment to exhibitors is the fact that those who show do not label their exhibits correctly. Exhibitors do not seem able to grasp the simple instructions in the schedules ; their exhibits often get hopelessly mixed up with other classes, and frequently when one man is exhibiting in three or four different sections or classes he will put three or four varieties of flowers together when only one is allowable. Much waste of the judges time could be avoided if every exhibitor would read his rules first, and would assure himself that his exhibit was correctly staged. Unless the schedule distinctly specifies to the contrary, it is assumed that one exhibit must contain only one variety of any one florists flower classed as such. General Hints.In conclusion we will give a few general hints to exhibitors of flowers. (a) Cut your best flowers so long as they are of uniform size. (b) Never put in a blemished flower among unblemished ones. If you have not a perfect bloom of any given size, substitute a perfect specimen of as near that size as possible, rather than put in one that is fading or gone to seed. (c) Water all flowers intended for exhibition the night before, and be certain to give them a good soaking. (d) Apply no stimulants to flowers required for exhibition on the night before the exhibition, since, unless great care is exercised, they may be spoiled at the last moment. (e) Cut your flowers in the early mommg while the dew is still on them, where possible. Take them immediately into the cellar, or put them in water in any similar cool place. (/) Cut your flowers with as long stems as possible, since you can easily shorten them if necessary in the show tent. (g) Take a few extra blooms to the show tent with you in case some may be damaged or be found defective when arranging the exhibits. (h) Pack your flowers for transit with great care in damp moss, keeping the ends of the stems to one end with extra moisture, or they may suffer if they have to travel far on a hot day. (z) Use a little phosphate of ammonia, say a quarter of an ounce to the gallon of water, a day or two before the show if your flowers are not sufficiently open for the purpose of exhibition. (j) Use a httle gum arable dissolved in water for fixing the petals of such flowers as Pelargoniums should they open too soon, unless your schedule specifies to the contrary. (k) Lastly, arrive at the show tent by the time specified in the schedule, and complete your exhibit as early as possible. Amateurs are unaware of the time it takes up to set three or four exhibits, but judges know to their cost how excessively aggravating it is to be unable to start their work by the advertised time. The result is that they have to hurry it, on account of exhibitors being still in the tent, and not leaving time to do the work properly,E,
Does a gardener need to be specially educated ? We say emphatically”Yes.”The man in the street usually says”No.”It must, however, be evident that whereas an uneducated lad frequently drifts into a mere”hewer of wood and drawer of water,”the one who literally”knows his book”almost automatically passes into the less laborious, but more interesting and better remunerated positions. Even such manual work as digging can be performed more easily, and certainly with greater interest, if the worker is able to apply the elements of mechanism to it. The value of work done does not necessarily depend upon the amount of muscular energy expended, but upon its utility. Ground does not usually require digging in March in the same way as in November. It is necessary to determine what is desired. 1 Antirrhinums are listed as Half- Hardy subjects ; but ofttimes they may almost be regarded as Hardy Plants.and the means of thorough accomplishment with the minimum fatigue. To obtain such results a really good education for the organiser is indispensable, and the labourer should have, at least, a rational one. We do not mean that a College education is essential for a successful gardener. Why should it be ? CoUege courses are designed for organised progress. Examination honours are obtained with comparative ease by College students, and together with the almost certain influence of the”Powers that be,”give such students immense starting advantages in the race for positions. Discussions with other students are invaluable. Innumerable difficulties crop up which questions and answers from a good instructor would quickly clear. For these reasons youth should, if possible, avail himself or herself of the many scholarships now offered to study at one of the Colleges. Self-education is likely to be less well directed. Time is lost through not making a good selection of subjects, or properly allotting time to the study of each. The self-educated student also lacks the training requisite suitably to marshal his knowledge to please examiners. This, however, he can to a large extent get over by correspondence. Finally, the self-educated student has to compete against the influence of”Friends at Court,”as College authorities frequently are. Justice to others is not always sufliciently pronounced to outweigh a natural prejudice in favour of a personal friend. On the other hand, a lad who cannot go to College, but has a persevering determination”to win through,”and well arranges his studies, making the utmost of his time and abilities, may reasonably hope to succeed ultimately. The chances of his giving up in despair are great, but the certainty of a glorious triumph is assured if he persistently pursues his upward course. Indeed, having been successful through the”Mill of Difficulties,”he is the man who will make his mark. The world wants independent thinkers, who will later bring their Ufes experiences into hotchpotch. The co-operation of even a few really good self-educated persons will beneficially leaven large numbers of College-trained individuals, who have necessarily foUowedmore or less in the prescribed groove, i Avoid Specialising.A self-educated 286 youth must take the utmost care not to specialise too soon. There is very great danger that he will do so, for he may become particularly interested in one thing, as, for instance, hybridising, and he reads all available books on the subject, and probably devotes much time to investigations. That is time wasted, however, as he cannot understand or appreciate fully what has been written upon the subject, nor can he winnow away the chafi from the grain of what is available. Time will be lost in doing work which a wider knowledge would show to be useless, and in any case such early specialisation will make him a very narrow or one-sided person . A thoroughly good elementary education is essential before studying any special branch of gardening. Theoretically the average lad has had a good grounding before leaving school, but experience shows that comparatively few can write a decent business letter, and stiU fewer can make simple calculations involving a practical knowledge of arithmetic and mensuration. Young men who have obtained high standards at school, have been quite at a loss to calculate the number of plants required for a triangular-shaped piece of ground upon which they may be standing, or to determine the approximate time and co.st likely to be involved in any particular purpose. Yet such calculations can be made extremely interesting, and the usefulness is beyond words. We urge all intending gardeners to lose no time in setting to work to acquire the ability to do such things with alacrity. What to Study.Given a good preliminary education, what are the special subjects essential for a gardener ? Naturally we must first mention BoT.NY, the science which, in its widest sense, teaches all about plants. The old idea of this science was that it had largely to do with difficult names, and classification figured as the most important part of Botany ; but we now rightly recognise the importance of structure and function. Indeed, so well is the importance of function now recognised, that it is sometimes considered almost a separate subject, and volumes have been written upon it under the name of Plant Physiology. Readers should study the article on this interesting branch of Botany which is given elsewhere in these pages. Obviously the structure of plants should be studied in conjunction with function. The raiser of newvarieties, and even the grower of seeds, must know all that can be learnt of the alliances of his plants. A few years ago we heard the generally excellent gardener of a well-known public personage describing his endeavours to obtain a cross between the red currant and tomato ! Doubtless there have been many similar futile attempts made by those who might easily have utilised their energy with advantage. However, even the most expert may wisely refrain from expressing contempt for honest endeavours. It does occasionally happen that some unrecognised force greatly modifies expected results, and it is true that in”Natures infinite Book of Secrecy”a very little can yet be read. Knowledge of proved facts is needed ; this, combined with the ability and trained alertness to observe any unexpected variation is what is needed, and the aim and object of education. Many gardeners have very vague ideas respecting the important science of Chemistry. It has been defined by schoolboys as”the science of explosions,”because by carelessly mixing wrong chemicals there is likely to be an abundance of broken glass flying about. To some persons the chemist is a person who makes filthy smells in a laboratory, or mixes materials for the purpose of blowing the roof off ; to others he is merely a dispenser of pills and disgusting tasting physic in a shop. The chemistry which is of such immense use to a gardener is, however, of a very different type, dealing as it does with the composition of soils, manures, and plants, also with insecticides and fungicides. The changes undergone in soils as the result of tillage operations, how to feed plants for any particular purpose, are also among the facts which chemistry teaches a gardener. The gardener needs to know the circumstances in which he can safely, and with advantage, use nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia ; when he should use basic slag, and when superphosphate or bones as a source of phosphate. He should know what fertiUsers he can safely mix ; and what should be studiously avoided. This was forcibly shown by an incident which occurred a short time ago. An organiser knew that he needed for various crops both nitrogen and phosphates. He purchased sulphate of ammonia for his nitrogen, and basic slag for his phosphates, and on leaving home one morning ordered his men to mix these thoroughly I The escaping ammonia was so overpowering that the mixers had to spend most of their time out-side the shed. By making frantic dashes to do a little mixing they were able to execute their orders, and therefore rendered two valuable substances wellnigh useless by a simple mistake 1 Such errors have sent not a few to”that bourne from which no traveller has returned.”Sound knowledge of Chemistry not only enables one to avoid such mistakes, but gives us immense power over the numerous tiny plant foes. Chemistry teaches how to destroy insect pests in thousands, and, better still, how to prevent the birth of millions. By such compounds as Bordeaux Mixture and other fungicides, plants can be safeguarded against many diseases. Rightly mixed and properly applied (which is so often not the case), the gardener can safely rest in his armchair, studying the latest news and enjoying his nicotine, assured that his plants are safely protected. Such branches of Physics as Ught and heat are important studies for the gardener. The management of glasshouses, and even of hotbeds, are obviously matters which he must not neglect. Ventilation, damping, and watering, a proper balancing of light and heat, are some of the many matters which this study will materially help to elucidate. Bacteriology is a comparatively new, but tremendously important science. Countless mjrriads of extremely minute organisms exist in the air, water, and especially in surface soil. Of many kinds, and every imaginable function, some known as pathogenic are the cause of most diseases to which man and animal are liable. One of the most important of these, so far as the gardener is concerned, is the Tetanus or lock-jaw bacillus. This exists chiefly in surface soil, and its possible presence shows the desirability of promptly cleansing and disinfecting any fresh wound, however sUght, which has been in contact with soil. However, most of the bacteria with which the gardener has to deal are active friends and co-workers ; Nitrates, for instance, are largely formed by their aid from humus. Study of them is most necessary if cultivation is to be thoroughly successful, and the greatest possible results gained from the soil. Besides these subjects there are others of paramount importance forthe gardener to study; for instance, mathematics, geology, zoology, entomologj, and other branches of natural history. We have no space here to describe the way he should take in these subjects, but only mention them as part of a gardeners education. We may point out in conclusion that many of the points mentioned will be found dealt with more fully in other articles ; lor instance. Botany, Chemistry, and Geology have an article to themselves, and Mathematics finds a place in our article on Weights and Measures. But when we reaHse the large amount of ground to be covered under each of these subjects, it is obvious that in the space of a few hundred words we can hardly do justice to it. The gardener who is wise, and means to gain the advantages resulting from a thorough education, should purchase one of the many cheap and excellent primers issued on all of these subjects, if he is not so fortunate as to be able to participate in a College education.F. J. B.
(Nat. Ord. Boraginacese.) This is one of the loveliest of all hardy alpines, but is difficult to grow in England. It may be raised from seed sown in spring. Eritrichium nanum.Leaves in woolly grey tufts. Flowers brilliant blue with a yellow eye. Site halfshade. Soil grit and sandstone. Flowering Period, May to June. Height, 2 ins.
It is unnecessary to give details of this work here as fruit is but seldom exhibited by beginners, and fruit shows are usually few and far between. The general rules described in our article on Exhibition Vegetables hold good for fruit also, and chapters concerning this work are given for the benefit of those who wish to specialise in this direction, in the larger works on fruit growing.
The application of electricity to stimulate the growth of flowers and vegetables is still in its infancy, and although when used in the hands of experts striking results have been obtained, it is too soon to say whether it will be possible for the ordinary gardener to use electricity profitably.