Carbon forms two compounds with oxygenviz., carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The former is produced whenever carbon is burned with an insufficient supply of oxygen to convert it into the dioxide, and may be prepared in the laboratory by passing a stream of the carbon dioxide gas over charcoal heated to redness: C02 + C = 2C0. It is a colourless gas of poisonous properties, but slightly soluble in water, i volume of which at o degrees C. dissolves 00328 volume of the gas, and it is utilized in a process for the manufacture of t e metal nickel. It occurs at times in coalmines, and is known as whitedamp. Carbon dioxide is elsewhere referred to as a constant constituent of the atmosphere and as a product of respiration. It is the gaseous product which is obtained whenever carbon is burned with a sufficiency of oxygen, and, like carbon monoxide, is a colourless gas which admits of condensation into the liquid and solid forms. It can readily be produced by the action of acids upon carbonates, such as calcium carbonate, and when hydrochloric acid is used in this process the change that takes place is represented as follows: CaC03+ 2IICI CaCl2tH20 + CC2 that is to say, the carbon dioxide gas escapes in a brisk effervescence, calcium chloride being left behind in solution. One volume of water at o degrees C. dissolves 1713 volume of the gas, which is employed commercially in various ways, both as a gas and in liquefied form; amongst other applications for impregnating water under pressure, as a fire extinguisher and for refrigeration. It is one of the constituents of what is called blackdamp or chokedamp by coalminers, and often occasions loss of life in mines after explosions. Carbonic Acid This combination of carbon digxide with water although itself an, unstable bodyforms with bases a great series of welldefined compounds known as carbonates. Thus, by combination with the socalled alkalies and alkaline earths, we get the following series: Sodium, potassium, and ammonium carbonates 3, and, all of which are soluble in water and calcium, barium, and magnesium carbonates, all of which are insoluble in water or practically so. Carbon also combines with sulphur to form the evilsmelling compound known as carbon disulphide, which inay be prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over redhot carbon, the CS2, which is volatile, being subsequently condensed in properly cooled vessels. Carbon disulphide is a colourless liquid of sp. gr. Isry, it is manufactured on a considerable scale, and employed as a solvent of caoutchouc, tats and other substances, also in processes for extraction of essential oils and perfumes, etc.. There are many organic compounds which are composed of carbon and hydrogen oniy, termed hydrocarbons, including such substances as methane or marshgas, naphthalene, and turpentine. Cyanogen consists of carbon and nitrogen only. Many others contain oxygen in addition to carbon and hydrogen, and there may be named as examples, alcohol, glycerine, acetic acid, phenol, and the carbohydrates. Another class consists of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, including prussic or hydrocyanic acid and aniline, whilst yet another class contains oxygen in addition to these three elements, such as urea, uidigotin, morphine,aud quinine There are still more complicated organrc substances in which other elements exist in combination with carbon, and one or more of those already mentioned, such as sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, and iodrne. The chief solid parts of the living tissues of animals are composed of socalled albumins or albuminoids containing from 527 to 545 per cent, carbon; 7 to 7*3 per cent, hydrogen; 20g to 23,5 per cent, oxygen; 15 to 18 per cent, nitrogen; and 075 to 5 per cent, sulphur, approximately represented by the formula C,2H112N1SS022.
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