constitute a large body of organic compounds built up for the most part of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen in the roportion in which they exist in water hence the name. They include sugars, starches, and celluloses, but there are other carbohydrates such as rhamnose, in which the hydrogen and oxygen constituents are not present in the water proportions. According to one grouping now observed, they are divided into three great classesviz., the Monosaccharoses, including arabinose, and glucose and fructose, which are isomeric bodies 6: the Bi and Trisaceharoses, which may be viewed as anhydrides of the first group, such as canesugar, which must then be regarded as the anhydride 1 > glucose; and the Polysaccharoses or polyoses, including the starches and the celluloses, from which a mono saccharose can be obtained by hydrolysis. The compounds of the first class are swTeet, are all soluble in water and do not crystallize, at any rate not very well; those of the second class are also sweet, and crystallize whilst the members of the third class are not sweet, are not soluble in water, and are noncrystalline. The simpie sugars combining the chemical properties of alcohols and aldehydes are now termed aid ho sis, while those which are at the same time like alcohols and ketones are styled ketnses. Many of these substances are described under their several names. As a class, the carbohydrates char wnen heated strongly, and give off an odour of burnt sugar.
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