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CAMPANULA

(Bellflower or Bellwort. Nat. Ord. Campanulaceae). This genus contains something like two hundred and thirty species of annual, biennial, or perennial flowers, mostly the latter. In the present work it will be impossible to describe more than a very small proportion of those specially worth commendation. Annual Species.Only a few of the hardy annuals need be troubled about by the everyday gardener. The- following, however, are exceedingly beautiful : Campanula drabaefolia.This is a Grecian plant of lowly growth, and its variety attica, often listed as a separate species, is the best to grow. It produces a dense mass of purple-blue flowers all the summer, and grows about 4 ins. high. Seed may be sown in the spring or autumn, in the flowering positions. There is a white variety called alba. C. Erinus.This is a suitable annual for the rock garden. It produces rosy-blue flowers throughout the early and late summer on stems which branch very freely, and its height is about 6 ins. C. macrostyla.This is a most distinct species having stifflybranched stems and producing glorious purple flowers veined with violet, from July onwards. Its hardiness is doubtful, and thus it should be given a warm position. Its height is 18 ins. C. ramosissima.This is a useful annual for the border, producing blue flowers with a white base freely during the summer. It grows about 9-12 ins. in height.C. H. C. Biennial Species.These require the usual treatment for biennials and are useful for the border or rockery. Campanula sibirica.This produces bluish – violet flowers from July onwards, and grows 12-18 ins. in height. The variety divergens is preferable to the type. C. thyrsoides.This bears attrac- 148 tive sulphur or pale yellow flowers from July onwards, and grows about 12-18 ins. in height. Perennial Border Species.These and the rock garden species to follow are the most important, thriving as they do in a great variety of soils. A large number of them, such as Campanula glomerata, C. lacHflora, C. latifolia, and C. persicifolia, are equally as happy under deciduous trees in woodlands as they are in the perennial border. Where the soil is heavy all Campanulas should, however, be planted in as open sunny spots as possible. Propagation is easily efiected by seeds, cuttings, ofl(sets, and division of the roots, and the seed, which is very small, is best sown in pots, pans, or boxes of finely sifted sandy soil during May or June, the resulting plants being pricked off in frames of light soil and protected from slugs. Spring planting is the best, and small plants should not be put out of doors too soon. Division of the roots, however, is by far the most satisfactory and speedy method of increasing ones stock. The following is a selection of the best species : Campanula alliariaefolia. This pretty species has heart-shaped leaves, and produces long creamywhite, bell-shaped drooping flowers from June to July. Height, 2-3 ft. C. americana.This erect species, with egg-shaped leaves, bears blue flowers in July, and grows 3-6 ft. high. C. betonicaefolia. This very branching species has long, oblong, egg-shaped leaves, and produces attractive blue-purple flowers in May. Height, ij ft. C. bononiensis.The lower leaves of this attractive species are heartshaped, and its violet-blue flowers are produced in July. C. b. alba is white, and both grow 2-3 ft. high. C. celtidifolia.A synonym of C. lacttflora, which see. C. collina.The dark blue funnelshaped flowers of this are produced in July, and the plant grows about I ft. high. C. glomerata.This useful sort, the lower leaves of which are eggshaped, produces attractive bluepurple flowers of medium size from May to September. The following are good varieties of it : alba (white) ; dahurica (violet-purple) ; and pusilla or acaulis (blue) ; and all grow 1-2 ft. in height, except the last-named, which grows only 1-2 ins. C. grandis.A synonym of C. lattloba, which see. C. lacttflora (Sya. C. celtidifolia). This attractive sort bears milkywhite flowers shaded with light blue, though pure white and sky-blue varieties have also been raised. The bloom is produced from July to September, and the height varies from 2 ft. to 6 ft. C. latifolia. The purple-blue flowers of this sort are narrowly bellshaped and are freely produced from June to August. The following are useful varieties : alba (white) ; Burghalti (lavender-blue) ; macrantha (royal purple) ; Van- Houttei (dark blue); and versicolor (light and dark purple). All grow from 2 ft. to 4 ft. in height. C. latiloba (Syn. C. grandis). This attractive sort produces light blue flowers in dense clusters during June or July, and its variety alba is pure white. Both grow 1-3 ft. high. C. longistyla. This useful sort bears blue-purple bell – shaped flowers from June to September, and grows 2-2J ft. high. C. lyrata.The numerous attractive blue flowers of this sort are produced in June, on plants growing 1-2 ft. high. C. Medium. See article on Canterbury Bells. C. nobilis.A synonym of C. punctata, which see. C. feregrina.The flowers of this are similar to those of C. latiloba in some respects. They are light blue, with a dark centre, and are produced in July, on plants 2 ft. high. C. persicifolia. The nodding flowers of this sort are blue and widely bell-shaped. They are produced from July to September, on plants 1-3 ft. high. Garden varieties, both single and double, are very numerous. C. phyctidocalyx.This produces rich dark blue-purple widely bellshaped flowers from May to July. Its height is 2-3 ft. C. primulaefolia.The flowers of this sort are densely arranged after the style of C. latiloba. They are blue or purple and are produced in July, on plants 1-3 ft. high. C. punctata (Syn. C. nobilis). This bears reddish-purple, cream, or white spotted flowers in July, on plants 1-2 ft. high. C. pyramidalis. See article on Chimney Bellflower. C. rapunculoides. This plant must be kept away from other choice subjects as it spreads rapidly. Its blue-purple flowers are freely produced from June to August, on plants 2-3 ft. high. C. Rapunculus. See article on RampION. C. sarmatica.This useful sort bears pale blue or purple bell-shaped flowers in July, on plants 1-2 ft. high. C. speciosa.This most useful sort bears purple and white flowers of medium size in a pyramid on the upper part of the unbranched stem. Its flowering period is June and July, and its height 1-2 ft. C. Trachelium (Nettle Leaf Bellflower).This attractive sort bears blue-purple bell-shaped nodding flowers in small clusters at the top of its stem from June to September. The best double varieties are : alba plena (white) ; and caerulea plena (blue) ; both of which grow 1-3 ft. high. C. versicolor.The flowers of this are pale violet at the tops, purplish in the middle, and dark violet at the base. They are produced from July to September, and are widely bellshaped and very attractive. The height of the plant varies from 3 to 4 ft.-J. F. Rock Garden Species.Most of these thrive in half-shady situations if planted in well-drained, sandy loam, and as a rule they are easily propagated by division of the roots in the spring, or by seed sown in gentle heat in March. The following is a selection of the most useful sorts, those difficult to grow being purposely omitted : Campanula abietina.This has tufted leaves forming a mat. Flowers light blue on branching stems. Site, half-shade. Soil rich, gritty loam. Flowering Period, May to July. Height, 9 ins. C. acutangula.Syn. C. arvatica, which see. C. Allionii. This spreads by underground runners, bearing leaves in tufts, and large solitary bluebelllike flowers. Site sunny. Soil very gritty or morainic. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 3 ins. C. alpina.This bears leaves in rosettes. Flowers light blue on branching stems. Site sunny. Soil morainic. Flowering Period, July to August. Height, 4 ins. C. arvatica (Syn. C. acutangula). This spreads by underground runners and has small ivy-like leaves close to the ground. Flowers lilac rock crevice. Flowering Period, June to September. Height, 3 ins. C. Raineri.This is a rare plant. Flowers saucer shape, deep blue and borne on short leafy stems. Site, half-shade. Soil morainic. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 3 ins. C. rhomboidalis.This is a bushy plant with leafy stems. Flowers blue. Site, half-shade. Soil moist. Flowering Period, June to July Height, I ft. C. rotundifolia (Hare-bell). This has wiry branching stems, and is very useful for the rock garden. Flowers deep blue to white. Site, half-shade. Soil gritty loam. Flowering Period, June to September. Height, I ft. C. Stansfieldi.This is very free flowering. Flowers violet-blue on branching stems. Site, half-shade. Soil 1 gritty. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 4 ins. C. Tommasiniana.This has a mass of wiry stems clothed with narrow leaves. Flowers pale blue, pendent in long racemes. Site sunny. Soil gritty or rocky crevice. Flowering Period, July to August. Height, 6 ins. C. Waldsteiniana.This grows into neat little bushes of wiry stems. Flowers pale blue. Site, half-shade. Soil gritty loam or rock J crevice. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 3 ins. C. Zoysii.This is a choice little gem making a compact bush-like plant. Flowers curious shape, azure blue. Soil morainic or very gritty and well drained. Flowering Period, June. Height, 3 ins.W. I. New Varieties. Campanula Abundance. This bears light blue flowers, several on a stem, and grows 6-8 ins. high. It is suitable for pot or rock garden culture. C. cenisia alba.This is a pretty white subject for the rock garden, growing i in. high. C. Chastity.This bears white bell-shaped flowers, and is of erect habit, growing 6 ins. high. It is best grown in pots. C. Enchantress.This is a pale mauve sort growing 6 ins. high, and most suitable for the rock garden. C. garganica W. H. Paine.This bears blue flowers with a white eye. It is a trailer suitable for the rock garden. C. Meteor. This bears white flowers with a violet eye, on plants 4 ins. high. It is best grown in pots. C. Norman Grove.This bears light blue bell-shaped flowers, and grows 3 ins. high. It is suitable for pot and rock garden culture. C. persicifolia Telham Beauty. This bears deep lavender flowers, on plants 3J ft. high. C. Phyllis Elliott.This bears erect, bell-shaped violet – blue flowers about an inch across, and grows about 3 ins. high. It is best grown in the rock garden. C. pusilla Miss Willmott.This bears pale violet-blue flowers twice the size of the type. It grows 3-4 ins. high, and is suitable for rock garden culture. C. tomentosa Maud Landale. This bears rosy-purple funnel-shaped flowers and felted leaves. It grows 6-12 ins. high, and is suitable for rock garden culture.W. J. C. or purple, wide open. Site, halfshade. Soil very gritty or morainic. Flowering Period, May to July. Height, 2 ins. C. carpatica.This has leaves in 150 large tufts and is a free grower. Flowers blue to white. Site, sun or half-shade. Soil rich, gravelly loam. Flowering Period, May to September. Height, i ft. C. excisa.This spreads by underground runners. Leaves narrow on wiry stems. Flowers blue, drooping, perforated. Site sunny. Soil very gritty or morainic. Flowering Period, June to August. Height, 3 ins. C. garganica.This is a freegrowing dwarf plant with small ivy-like leaves. Flowers blue, with white centre, starlike and freely produced. Site, half-shade. Soil rich gritty loam or crevice. Flowering Period, May to August. Height, 3 ins. The variety alba has white flowers, and the variety hirsuta has hoary leaves. C. muralis.S)ti. C. Portenschlagiana, which see. C. planiflora.This is a small counterpart of C. persicifolia. Flowers large blue. Site sunny. Soil rich gritty loam. Flowering Period, July to August. Height, 8 ins. C. Portenschlagiana (Syn. C. muralis).This is one of the best dwarf species, and is of tufted habit. Flowers blue-purple in long racemes. Site, half-shade in rock crevices. Soil gritty. Flowering Period, June to August. Height, 4 ins. The variety bavarica has larger flowers. C. pulla.This is one of the choicest kinds. Flowers deep rich violet almost hiding the foliage. Site, half-shade. Soil rich and well drained, gritty. Flowering Period, June to September. Height, 3 ins. C. pusilla (Syn. C. pumila). This is a free-growing species, spreading by underground runners and coming up freely from selfsown seeds. Flowers blue to white. Site, half-shade. Soil gritty or

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CARPENTERS LEAF

A name sometimes applied to Galax aphylla.

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CELLAR GARDENING

During the winter the possibilities of a cellar for certain forms of plant culture should not be overlooked. In these underground apartments the temperature often is relatively high, and is usually maintained well above freezing-point even during severe weather. The deficiency of light in a cellar hampers ordinary growth on the part of vegetation, but the darkness is no hindrance to the development of crops that are forced in blanched conditions. Seakale and Chicory do particularly well in such situations. The roots are lifted from the ground and placed in pots or boxes with a little soil. Water should be given somewhat sparingly, as where there is excessive damp, fungoid growths, such as mould, are always likely to appear in a cellar. This plan, in the case of the above vegetables, may be carried out from the fall onwards through the winter. Another useful plant for the cellar is Dandelion. Strong roots should be lifted from the fields and wayside and potted up, very little soil being required. These plants send up a fine blanched growth that is excellent for salad purposes. Rhubarb is also an ideal crop for the cellar gardener. The clumps are lifted from the ground towards the late fall. If they are exposed to a few nights frost they will force all the more readily. Finally, the roots are packed closely together on the floor of the cellar, a small amount of rather dry soil being shaken in between them. Moisture is needed, of course, but, until the plants are growing actively, it is safer to keep them on the dry side. Excellent stalks are quickly produced, and these may be secured at a very early date. Cellars are naturally ideal positions for the growing of Mushrooms, though some objection may be raised by the sanitary officials to the presence of rnanure in rooms under a dwelling-house. As a matter of fact, the material does not give out much odour if it is stacked out of doors for ten days, and repeatedly turned, before being introduced into the cellar. Almost the only difficulty which confronts the gardener in the cellar is excessive damp, which leads, as we have said, to the appearance of mould on an extensive scale. Water should be sparingly given to the plants, and this is more quickly absorbed if the chill is slightly taken ofi. Another useful step is the daily ventilation of the cellar as far as possible. Often by leaving the door and window (if there should be one) open for a short while, the heavy stagnant air, so favourable to fungoid activity, is very much relieved.S. L. B.

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CHERRY GUMMING

Gummosis in DISEASES OF Plants.

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CHRYSOPSIS

(Nat. Ord. Composite). This is more suitable for the wild garden than for the hardy perennial borderthough it maybe included in the Ja ter. Its Daisy-like flowers make it attractive in the eyes of some, though we must confess that there are many better things. Regarding soil it is not particular ; being of a strong constitution it might be more often grown in town gardens than it i”., in sites where more valuable thing,j ail. It may be propagated by splitting up the rootstocks in the usual manner in the early spring, and may be planted from November to March. What to Grow.In our opinion Chrysopsis trtchophylla is one of the best of the sorts now known. This produces yellow flowers about midsummer, and averages some 12 ins. in height. C. villosa Rutteri is preferred by some people. It resembles C. trtchophylla in its characters.

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COLEWORT

(Bmssica oleracea. Nat. Ord. Cruciferae).These are popularly known as Bunch Greens, thousands of them finding their way to our large markets each year ; the tenderness of the young leaves coupled with their sugary flavour, making them acceptable at tables where the more popular large growing varieties of cabbage would not find favour. Culture. To supply heads for early autumn use, seed should be sown as early in April as the state of the soil allows, other sowings being made a month later to carry on the supply throughout the winter. It is important the seed be sown on a rich, and firmly-trodden bed. Sow thinly in drills 6 ins. apart ; this is preferable to the more common plan of sowing broadcast. The seedlings should be transferred to permanent quarters when about 6 ins. high, a foot each way being ample for the development of the small heads. Like all members of the Brassica tribe, these thoroughly appreciate a rich root run, and where this is not provided, the growth will be slow, and the table quality when cooked sadly inferior to Coleworts given a more generous diet. Plenty of moisture at the root should be given until the plants have taken well hold of the soil, after which the hoe should be freely used between the rows. An occasional watering with liquid manure, or a light sprinkle of Nitrate of Soda, given between the plants and well stirred into the soil with the hoe will assist them greatly. The most useful variety is that known as Rosette, which forms a fair-sized compact growing head, every leaf of which has some culinary value.F. R. C.

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CORONILLA

(Crown Vetch. Nat. Ord. Leguminosae).This is a genus of handsome free flowering greenhouse plants of easy culture, and herbaceous plants suitable for the rock garden. There are also shrubby and creeping species, which it would be beyond the scope of the present work to describe. The greenhouse species may be easily propagated by inserting cuttings under a hand-light or bellglass during the summer months, very little heat being required. A suitable soil for both cuttings and established plants is two-thirds peat, one-third loam, and plenty of silver sand. Temperature required, 40- 50 degrees F. The two best sorts are : Coronilla glauca.Fragrant yellow. Flowers from June to July. Height, 2 ft. C. glauca variegata. Yellow. Flowers from June to July. Height, 2 ft. Roek Garden Species.The three described below are attractive and bear pea-shaped flowers. They thrive in loamy soil, and are easily propagated by the division of the roots in the autumn, or by seeds which germinate freely if sown in gentle heat in March. Coronilla cappadocica (Syn. C. iberica).This has prostrate stems well clothed with leaves. Flowers bright yellow. Site sunny. Soil deep loam. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 3 ins. C. minima.This is a very dwarf species. Flowers yellow. Site sunny. Soil deep loam. Flowering Period, June to July. Height, 2 ins. C. varia.This forms a bushy plant, the juice of which is poisonous. Flowers bright rose. Site sunny. Soil ordinary loam. Flowering Period, June toJuly. Height, 18 ins. See also SHRUBS.

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CUCUMBERS

Indoor (Cucumis sativus. Nat. Ord. Cucurbitacese). The cultivation of the cucumber is important in every garden, and though comparatively easy to grow during the summer months, much care and att

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