What is BASES?

Bodies which combine with acids, thereby neutralizing their acidity, and forming salts. Originally, the compound known as potassium carbonate was obtained from the ashes of seaweed and was called alkali, a word of Arabic origin. By the term alkali is now meant something of exactly the opposite nature to acid. The common alkalies are named potash, soda, and ammonia. Potash is a combination of i atom potassium, i atom hydrogen, and i atom oxygenKHO. Potassium carbonate is a combination of 2 atoms potassium, 1 atom carbon, and 3 atoms oxygenKaCO,. Soda is a combination of 1 atom sodium with 1 atom hydrogen and 1 atom oxygenNaHO, and sodium carbonate is Na2COs. Potassium and sodium in combination with oxygen alone form oxides, and their formulae are as follows: K20 and Na2. It is by combination of these oxides with water that the respective hydrates are formed. For example, a molecule of the potassium oxide combining with a molecule of water gives 2 molecules of potassium hydrate, thus: Ki0 + H10 = 2KH0. Ammonium hydrate is a combination of 1 tom nitrogen, 5 atoms hydrogen, and 1 atom oxygenNH4HO. These oxides and hydrates are all soluble in water. Barium oxide, when combined with water, forms barium hydrate as follows: BaO + HaO = BaH,0,. In this case, 1 part or molecule of the barium oxide enters into combination with 1 part or molecule of water, and produces 1 part or molecule of barium hydrate. A hydrate is therefore a combination of an oxide of a base or metal and the elements of water. These alkaline bodies are all more or less soapy to the feel when dissolved in water, and they have the opposite action on colours to acidsthat is, they turn vegetable red colours to blue colours. They are also classified as bases; but there are many other kinds of bases, all of which have the property of entering into chemical action with acids to form compounds which are called salts, including allthose organic bodies which are derivatives of annnoma or may be viewed as such, including the amines and the alkaloids. The same term is used to include the derivative compounds of the phosphorus, arsenic and antimony analogues of ammonia; the phosphines, arsines and stibines being derived by the exchange of hydrogen for radical groups such as CH3 and C., HL in the compounds known as phosphorettnd hydrogen, arseniuretted hydrogen and antimoniuretted hydrogen respectively; so that there result for examples triethyl phosphine, P3, and trimethyl stibine, Sb3, all of which are of more or less basic character.

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Definition of  BASES